Circulatory System of a Mammal

  • Created by: LucySPG
  • Created on: 27-05-13 15:33
What happens as organisms get bigger?
Their surface area to volume ratio decreases
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What is a result of the decrease in surface area to volume ratio?
The need of the organism cannot be met by the body surface alone
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Name 2 things a specialist gas exchange surface is needed for
To absorb nutrients and respiratory gases and to remove excretory products
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Name 2 things a transport system is required to do
Transport materials from the cells to the exchange surface and transport materials from the exchange surface to the cells
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Where do materials have to be transported?
Between the exchange surface and the environment and between different parts of the organism
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What happens to the tissues and organs of an organism as it evolves into a large and more complex structure?
They become more specialised and dependent on one another
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Whether or not there is a specialised transport medium and whether or not it is circulated by a pump depends on what two factors?
The surface area to volume ratio and how active the organism is
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The lower the surface area to volume ratio of an organism....
The more active the organism
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What is needed for a more active organism?
A specialised transport system with a pump
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Name the first feature of a transport system
A suitable medium in which to carry materials - blood
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Name the second feature of a transport system
A form of mass transport - in which the transport medium is moved around in bulk over large distances
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Name the third feature of a transport system
A closed system of tubular vessels - which contains the transport medium and forms a branching network to distribute it to all parts of the organism
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Name the fourth feature of a transport system
A mechanism for moving the transport medium within vessels
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Name the fifth feature of a transport system
A mechanism to maintain the mass flow movement in one direction - valves
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Name the sixth feature of a transport system
A means of controlling the flow of the transport medium - to suit the changing needs of different parts of the organism
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Why do mammals have a double circulatory system?
Because the blood passes through the heart twice for each complete circuit of the body
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Why is blood passed through the heart twice?
When blood is passed through the lungs, pressure is reduced and if it were to pass immediately to the rest of the body its low pressure would make circulation very slow. Its therefore returned to the heart to boost its pressure again.
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Why is it necessary to deliver substances to the rest of the body quickly?
Because mammals have a high temperature and a high rate of metabolism
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What does the blood transport?
Respiratory gases, products of digestion, metabolic wastes and hormones
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The vessels that make up the circulatory system of a mammal are divided into what three types?
Arteries, veins and capillaries
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How does the circulatory system of a mammal differ to that of a fish?
Fish have a simpler system. It doesn't supply oxygen as rapidly to the tissues as it has a single circulatory system.
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What blood vessel joins the right ventricle of the heart to the capillaries of the lungs
Pulmonary artery
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What blood vessel carries oxygenated blood away from the heart?
Aorta
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What blood vessel carries de-oxygenated blood away from the liver?
Hepatic vein
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What is the first main blood vessel that an oxygen molecule reaches after being absorbed from an alveolus?
Pulmonary vein
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What blood vessel has the highest blood pressure?
Aorta
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What blood vessel is connected to the right atrium and bring de-oxygenated blood back from the tissues of the body?
Vena cava
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What blood vessel is connected to the right ventricle and carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs?
Pulmonary artery
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What blood vessel is connected to the left atrium and bring oxygenated blood back from the lungs?
Pulmonary vein
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a result of the decrease in surface area to volume ratio?

Back

The need of the organism cannot be met by the body surface alone

Card 3

Front

Name 2 things a specialist gas exchange surface is needed for

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name 2 things a transport system is required to do

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where do materials have to be transported?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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