Transport in animals

  • Created by: rachel
  • Created on: 13-02-13 16:47
In unicellular organisms, how can substances be moved around the body?
They can pass by diffusion or be carried in cytoplasm as it flows within the organism.
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What substances have to be moved around the body?
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & absorbed food.
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Why doesn't movement by diffusion work in a large scale animal (multi cellular) ?
Because distances are too great & Oxygen cannot be supplied fast enough from the lungs to cell else where in the body; a transport system is needed.
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Give three examples of mass flow.
Blood, Phloem & Xylem.
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What's mass flow?
Movement of a fluid through a system of tubes in one direction.
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How does the transport system vary in mammals & Flowering plants?
Mammals have a circulatory system: Heart + blood vessels + blood. Flowering plants have Xylem & Phloem.
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How does the Gas exchange system vary in mammals & Flowering plants?
Mammals have alveoli in the lungs, flowering plants have all cell surfaces that are in contact with the air e.g. palisade and spongy mesophyll cells in leaves.
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How does the transport of oxygen vary in mammals & Flowering plants?
Mammals carry oxygen in combination with haemoglobin. In Flowering plants, oxygen diffuses through air spaces between cells.
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How does the transport for carbon dioxide vary in mammals and flowering plants?
Mammals - Carbon dioxide in blood - plasma as HCO3- and in combination with haemoglobin. Flowering plants - Carbon dioxide diffuses through air spaces between cells.
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How does the transport of carbohydrate vary in mammals and flowering plants?
Mammals - Glucose in solution in blood plasma. Flowering plants - sucrose in solution in phloem sap.
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How does the transport of water vary in mammals and flowering plants?
Mammals - most of the blood plasma is water. Flowering plants - in the Xylem sap.
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What is the force to move fluids in Mammals & in flowering plants?
mammals - the heart. Flowering plants - the xylem (transpiration pull) the phloem (active pumping of sugars into the phloem and hydrostatic pressure)
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Give an example of a small animal that relies on diffusion alone to transfer O2, CO2, small molecules absorbed after digestion & waste substances around the body.
Flat worms - they don't have a circulatory system & their cells receive O2 by diffusion through the body surface.
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Describe an open circulatory system and give an example of an animal with one.
Some blood vessels, but the blood flows out of these to bathe the tissues directly, rather than travelling in arteries, capillaries & veins. - Insects.
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Describe a closed circulatory system & give an example of an animal with one.
Blood flows through the body confined within blood vessels. Substances are exchanged between blood & tissues across the walls of capillaries - the tiniest blood vessels - Vertebrates such as fish & mammals.
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What are the three important components of a closed circulatory system and what are they made up of?
The Blood - red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets & plasma. Blood vessels - arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules & veins. The heart - the pump for circulating the blood through the vessels.
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Do fish have a single or double circulatory system? Why?
Single - blood passes through the heart to the gills then to the rest to the body immediately.
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Do mammals have a single or double circulatory system? Why?
Double - The blood passes through the heart twice in one complete circulation of the body.
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What is pulmonary circulation?
The circuit from the heart to the lungs and back.
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What is systemic circulation?
The circuit from the heart to the rest of the body.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What substances have to be moved around the body?

Back

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & absorbed food.

Card 3

Front

Why doesn't movement by diffusion work in a large scale animal (multi cellular) ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give three examples of mass flow.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's mass flow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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