Childcare Unit 1: Patterns of development, Brain development and Atypical development

How do you measure growth?
Height, weight and head circumference
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When are these growth measurements taken?
Normally the child's first year
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Who takes the measurements?
A health professional
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When they are noted, where do they put the information next?
On a growth chart
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What is the chart also referred to?
Centile chart
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Are there different charts?
Yes, boys and girls have different charts because boys tend to be heavier and taller than girls
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What do the health professionals have to take into account of the child?
Their ethnic background, this is because some races are lighter or shorter than others
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What is neuroscience?
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system
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What is the importance of brain development?
The brain development in babies and children underpins their overall development
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What is brain development also referred to?
Neurological development
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What is a neuron?
They are brain cells
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What helps the brain to work?
The way that the neutrons connect together to transmit and receive electrical signals
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What operates and reflects our feelings, thoughts and actions?
The electrical signals
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What is the tiny gap between the axon terminal and the dendrites called?
It's called a synapse
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What happens between this gap?
Electricity jumps across this gap
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What happens to the neuron when you gain a new experience?
Creates new connections between neutrons within the brain
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What are neural pathways?
Repeated experiences and stimulation create stronger and longer-lasting connections between different neurons
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What is myelination?
In order to prevent electrical pulses from straying, the axons of the neurons need to be coated with a substance called myelin
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When does the myelination process begin and end?
It begins at birth but it is not complete until early adulthood
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What is the effect of myelination?
Has the effect of improving the speed of connections within the brain and so allows for smoother physical movements but also faster thinking
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What is the process called when the synapses or connections are not often used or needed so they are removed?
Neural pruning
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What benefit of neural pruning does it have on a child?
It allows the brain to be more efficient when any unused connections are removed
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How many neurons are we born with?
Around 100 billion neurons
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Why is it important for a woman to take care of herself during the tenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy?
Because this is when all the neurons will be formed
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What happens in the final 2 months before birth?
The dendrites and axons of the neurons develop and begin to make some connections
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What happens to the weight of the babies brain in the first 2 years?
Triples in weight
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Why does it triple in weight?
Because the axons and dendrites are increasing in size, and more synapses begin to form
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What happens in the stage of periods of neural growth for a 4 year old?
Supports children's fluency in language and speech
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What happens in the stage of periods of neural growth for a 6-8 year old?
Supports children's fine motor skills
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What happens in the stage of periods of neural growth for a 10-12 year old?
Growth takes place in the frontal lobes, the area of the brain associated with reasoning and logic
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What happens in the stage of periods of neural growth for a 13-15 year old?
Supports young people's physical coordination and also their ability to use abstract thought
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What can affect a child's brain development?
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When a child is involved in stressful situations or is really distressed what is the hormone called that is released?
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What happens if a child is exposed to long-term stress?
Affects their memory, ability to learn and level of resilience
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How does it help practitioners to understand the patterns of development?
Helps to:
- recognise a child's stage of development
- support development
- anticipate the next stages of development
- recognise delays in development
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What is atypical development?
Used to refer to children whose patterns and rates of normative development are unusual and are significantly different from those expected within their age range
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What is delayed global development?
This is when the rate of progress across all areas of the child is significantly lower than that associated with normative development for their age range
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What does it mean if a child is specifically delayed?
This is when a child has a specific delay within one area of development
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What does it mean when a child is described as gifted?
This is when a child's cognitive abilities is above their age range, e.g. in maths or science
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What does talented mean?
This is when a child is ahead in their development within a practical area, such as sports.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Normally the child's first year


When are these growth measurements taken?

Card 3


A health professional


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


On a growth chart


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Centile chart


Preview of the back of card 5
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