Child Psychology Flashcards (+extra studies for grade boost) (content from textbook + simply Psychology)

What did Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis state?
That if an infant is unable to develop ‘warm, intimate, and contineous relationship with his mother, the child would have difficulty forming relationships later on.
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When is the ‘critical period’, in Bowlby’s view?
2.5-3 years. If mothering is delayed until this point, it is almost useless.
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What is monotropy all about?
Coined by Bowlby. Mother bond with one infant at a time. Attachment to mother = unique, strongest of all.
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Bowlby quote on the importance of a mother figure
‘Mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’
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What should the attachment figure represent for the child, and how would it react if the attachment figure left?
The attachment figure is a ‘safe haven’ for the child. They provide a safe base for the child to explore. They would show distress and anxiety if separated, to draw the caregiver back.
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How does Harlow’s study of the Monkey demonstrate attachment?
Baby monkeys, when offered either a wire mother with food and a soft cloth mother without food, opted for the towel monkey, and were better physically and mentally adjusted if they chose to do this.
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Two more studies that show support for Bowlby’s theory of attachment?
Robertson and Robertson [Naturalistic Observations in hospitals], deprivation effect when kids were admitted.] Spitz also studied kids in hospital. Found separation and deprivation are harmful.
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Criticism of Bowlby’s theories
- Doesn’t bother with the father's role - Harlow and Lorenz’s findings are of animals and not hooomans. Theory is class bias, promotes middle-class ideal of good parenting, not always possible.
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How long did Bowlby believe there was a risk of disturbance?
For up to 5 years. Bowlby throught that after this age, children are better able to cope with separation.
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Did Bowlby state the only possible atttachment figure would be the mother?
No - only suggests most likely to be the mother. Could be a mother-subsitute. Needs to form a relationship with one primary caregiver.
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What the heck did Ainsworth do - and what was the aim?
Ainsworth = Strange Situation study. Provide a method for assessing quality of attachment.
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What did Ainsworth observe?
- Separation anxiety: The unease the baby showed when left - Baby’s willingness to explore - Stranger anxiety: Responce to stranger. Reunion behaviour
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How many predetermined activities did the Strange Situation involve?
Eight, each about 3 minutes
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What three attachment types did Ainsworth classify?
Type A - Avoidant-insecure (22%) Type B: Securely attached - (66%) Type C: Resistant insecure (12%)
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Charateristics of Type A babies + mothers?
Little interaction with mother when investigating, not concerned by absence. Avoided stranger. When mother returned, ignored them. Mothers often rejected/ignored their babies.
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Charateristics of Type B babies + mothers?
Explored unfamilar room, subdued when mother left, positive greeting when she returned. Moderate avoidence of stranger, but friendly when mother present.
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Charateristics of Type C babies + mothers?
Intence distess, particually when mother was absent. Rejected her when she returned. Apathic to stranger. Mothers behaviour was inconsistant.
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What is the 4th attachment type and who developed this?
Disorganised & Disorientated - Main and Solomon. Child both approaching and avoiding mother on return.
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What did Grossman Et Al find?
More anxious insecure attachment types in Germany. Either because mothers anre’nt as responsive, or they value independance more.
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What did Miyake Et Al find? What did Sagi et al find?
More ambivalent insecure
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Evaluatative points supporting Ainsworth?
- Same procedure used across cultures, so is reliable. Consistency with attachment types identified. Well-controlled procedure, uses many observers so has inter-rater reliability.
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Evaluative points discrediting Ainsworth?
Lab = unnatural setting. Lack of ecological validity. The 4th type added later suggests original was an incomplete idea.
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When does Deprivation occur?
When an infant is separated from their primary caregiver
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What are the 3 stages of deprivation, according to Bowlby?
- Protest - Despair - Detachment
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How does protest from deprivation present itself?
Initital reaction is crying, screaming, kicking and generally struggling to escape. Clinging to mother to prevent her leaving. Child feels fearful &/or angry/
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How does despair from deprivation present itself?
Calmer behavour after protest. Child may seem apathetic, but still feels the anger from before. Feelings are 'locked up', appears depressed/sad. May no longer anticipate mothers return/ May be rocking, thumb sucking, so on.
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How does detachment from deprivation present itself?
If the separation continues on, the child will being to respond to people again, but it will often be superficial. If reunited with mother, may have to relearn lationship. Child could reject mother, as mother was previously seen as having to reject.
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What research did James And Royce Robinson do?
England between 1948 and 1952 -showed that separation does not need to lead to emotional deprivation, if another caregiver can fill the role. Important to maintain some emotional bond with mother.
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What did Richards (1995) find?
That children from divorced familes had lower levels of academic achievement and self-esteem, problems of conduct, Eariler social maturity, more changes in job, lower-economic status, higher depression.
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What feelings are associated with parental death?
Feelings of helplessness, increased risk of depression.
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What did Bifulco et al study + find out?
Studied 249 women who lost mothers b4 17, through separation or death. Had 2x rate of depression + anxiety disorders. Even higher for who lost mothers b4 6.
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What did Spitz and Wolf (1946) find out?
Studies 100 'normal' kids who became depressed after hospital stay. Kids recovered well if separation < 3 months. Longer separation = rarely recovered 100%
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What did Goldfarb (1943) show?
Goldfarb (1943) showed how children who lived in institutions for their first 3 years of life were less rule-abiding, less sociable, and less intelligent (according to IQ tests) than a control group who had been fostered.
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How can the negative effects of deprivation be reduced?
- Through a replacement attachment figure - Attention and contact from attachment figure. Avoiding separation for the first 2 yrs of life to form strong bond.
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What did Skodak and Skeels (1945) find out?
Providing a member of staff to support each child helps to improve children's well being in orphanages.
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What did Skeels and Dye (1939) do +find out?
Compared development of group of orphans raised in home for mentally retarded women, with a control group who remained in original place. Found control group IQ dropped, whereas moved group risen. Credited to emotional care received from adults,.
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What is privation?
- A complete lack of emotional care, meaning child never had change to form attachment in the first place. Permanent harm to emotional and social development.
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What did the outcome of the Czech twins suggest?
That children recovered early enough (perhaps b4 age 8) can recover when given extra stimulation - or no critical period exists? Also suggests that if a child as SOME social contact, in this case their twin, the effects are reduced.
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What is the problem with the case study of Genie?
It is unclear wther or not genie had suffered developmental problems in the first place, so unsure whether privation or mental difficulties influenced her state. Evidence could only be collected retrospectively & was subjective.
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How does Genie's case provide evidence for and critique Bowlby's work?
Genie was never able to develop normal langauge skills, which supports Bowlby's ideas, however she WAS able to form an attachment with the researchers, which Bowlby would not say was possible.
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Define Day-care
A form of care for infants and children, by anyone other than close family, outside the home. Only during the day, obs.
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Melhunish (1990) What was her aim?
To investigate the relative progress made by children who remained in full-time maternal care, and those who experienced different forms of day-care. Also how factors in day-care influence development in children.
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Melhunish method?
250 1st born kids from followed from birth to 3 years. 75% mums returned to work b4 baby 9 months. Daycare: 30% relative, 50% child minder, 20% nursery. 18 months + 3 years children put in **, accessed. Daycare places assessed too.
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Melhunish results?
Children most aggressive when put in nurserys. Most affectionate when / mothers. Most vocal w/mother, least in nursery. Order goes mother best, relative next, child minder, and then nursery.
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Melhuish negative effects of day care on cognitions?
-Lower reading + math skills if day care b4 age 3 - Children are more insecure, due to lack of base. - Poorer cognitive development
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Melhuish positive effect of day-care on cognitive development?
High quality care can improve academic performance incl langauge abilities, reading and math. - For children from disadvantaged backgrounds increased cognitive development.
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Melhuish: Negative effects of day-care on social development?
- More insecure attachments and distress. Sepation + dispution to child - caregiver relationship. - The longer children are in care for, the more aggressive they become.
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Melhuish: Positive effects of day-care on social development?
Child often ends up more popular and social in school. Able to cope better with social situations. Children learn negotiation skills.
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Which children do and do not benefit from day-care?
- Insecurely attached children benefit, compensatory care helps - Secure children do not benefit,l separation detrimental for child.
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What did Bryant et al find out about day-care?
That childminders tend to reward quiet behaviour, encouraging passivity, and under-stimulation.
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What should be considered about Nursery care?
-Staff:child ratio. If this is too low, the children may have difficultiey forming attachment, and experience negative effects of deprivation.
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What did Belsky and Rovine (1988) find out?
Children who spend more than 20 hours per week in day-care are more insecurely attached than home-cared children are.
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What did the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development find out about aggression?
Children who spent more than 10 hours in daycare were more aggressive when they reached school age. (due to insecure attachment?)
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What did Harvey (1999) find?
Children of women who work outside home no permanent harm. Examined children at 12 years old. Suggests problems that arise in childhood from separation depleted by 12 years old.
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What did Takahashi (1986) do +stats?
Used Strange Situation on Japanese Babies, test validity throu cultures. 68% babies, secure, 32% resistant-insecure.
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What did Takahashi (1986) find?
Japanese babies more disturbed being left alone - 90% step was skipped due to distress.
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What conclusions did Takahashi (1986) make
Cross-cultural variations in response to being alone. Japanese babies = little separation. Therefore ** = more stressful.
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What did Sagi et al (1985) study?
Israeli Kibbutzim - people live in a communal fashion. Mothers of newborn babies only stay for a few weeks. Mother works a few hours a week with gradual increase.
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What did Sagi et al (1985) find?
The babies of these mothers tend to become v upset, half classified as resistant/insecure, 37% securely attached.
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What did Ainsworth find in Uganda?
The meaning of life = 42. Just kidding. Children who were less scurely attached had less physical contact with mothers. Mothers who were more responsive early on + babies cried es, more vocalizations and gestures.
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How many people does Autism effect in the UK?
Around 700,000 people in the UK - more than 1 in 100.
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Which sex is autism more prevalent in and by how much? Fombonne et al (2011)
Boys. Five times more have been diagnosed. Fombonne et al (2011) found a mean of 5.5 males to 1 female in their research review.
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Symptoms/charateristics of Autism?
- Avoiding eye contact— Difficulties understaning social cues Lack of responsiveness to others (little interest in others) - Lack of empathy - - Difficultly forming friendships - Inability to form attachments, even with parents - Repetitive Behaviour
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What explanation has Simon Baron-Cohen come up with?
- Autism is an exaggeration of the male brain - coined the ‘extreme male brain’
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Three types of brain according to Baron-Cohen?
Type E = Female brain. Empathising stronger than systemising. Type S = Systemising stronger than empathising. Others are knnown as the ‘balanced brain’
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How does Baron-Cohen explain the ‘extreme male brain’?
Autistic children are better at typically male tasks. Brain differences show girls are better at social and commuication skills, which autism is charaterised by a lack of. High levels of testrosterone during development = Male brain.
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What did Baron-Cohen find on a self-report study?
Females score higher on empathy questions, males score higher on systemising questions.
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What is theory of mind?
Theory of mind refers to the notion that many autistic individuals do not understand that other people have their own plans, thoughts, and points of view. Furthermore, it appears that they have difficulty understanding other people's beliefs, attitud
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What type of blindness did Baron-Cohen say autistic children have?
‘Mind Blindness’
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What was the aim of the Sally Ann Task?
To discover if autistic children have he ability to understand other people’s points of view, and work out what others believe.
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Ppts in the Sally Ann study?
20 autistic children (average age 12), 14 Downs Children (Average age 11) and 27 ‘normal’ children (avg age 4)
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What three questions were the children asked for this task?
1: Where will Sally look for her ball? 2- Which doll is Sally and which is Anne? 3 -Where is the ball really?
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Results from the ‘Sally Anne’ Task?
- 85% of Downs + Normal children answered correctly. - Only 20% oof Autistic children answered correctly.
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What did Pennebaker et al (1981) report?
Shy children find the day-care situation threatening - less likely to find benefit from experience
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What did Hazen and Durrett (1982) find out?
Found that securely attached young children were more independent explorers of their environment, and more innovative in problem solving.
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What did Bowlby's findings from his 44 Juvenile Thieves study suggest?
Bowlby’s findings indicate that experiencing disrupted attachments early in life is linked to crime, emotional maladjustment and lower academic achievement, lending strong support for the MDH.
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Cockett and Tripp (1994) - what did they find?
Children living in families with marital discord were better off than reordered families (families in which parents have divorced)
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What did Rutter et al (1998) aim to do?
Rutter aimed to see the extent to which good-quality care could make up for poor early institutional experiences.
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What did Rutter et al (1998) do?
Compared Romanian adoptees with a group of British Adoptees, observe deprivation effect. Romanian children = Developmentally delayed. Poor developmental experiences = poor recovery.
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What does ethnocentrism mean?
evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.
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What four principles does the UNCRC set out?
Non-discrimination, best interest of the child, Right to life, Right to be heard
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CLASSICAL STUDY: What was the aim of Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenbergs study?
To investigate if attachment styles are universal across cultures, or culturally specific.
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How did Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg conduct their study?
They carried out a meta-analysis, combining findings from 32 strange-situation studies in 8 different countries, involving 2000 children. Some individualist cultures (US, UK) and some Collectivist (China, Japan, Israel)
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What were the results from the classic study?
Secure Attachment = Most common in all countries. Lowest attachment = China. Highest Attachment = GB! Individualistic cultures (Germany) had high levels of anxious avoident. Collectively close countries (japan) high levels of ambivalent resistant
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What conclusion was drawn from Van Ijzendoorns study?
Consistency in attachment= universal characteristics underpin attachment. The German study highlights a high percentage of avoidant behavior, typical of independent children. Israeli children independent living = little anxiety when mom leaves
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Criticism of Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study? (cultural differences)
The Strange Situation was created and tested in the USA, which means that it may be culturally biased (ethnocentric), as it will reflect the norms and values of American culture.
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Crit for Representativeness?
Many studies have biased samples which cannot claim to be representative of each culture, e.g. 36 infants in the Chinese study. Also most of the studies analyzed where from Western cultures.
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Did Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg report that differences between cultures were biggest or differences within cultures?
Differences within cultures were often bigger than differences between them
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What did Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg conclude about analysing attachment across cultures?
They conclude that it is wrong to think of everyone in a culture having the same practices. Within a culture there are many sub-cultures, all with their own way of rearing children.
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CONTEMPORARY STUDY: Cassiba et al (2013). What was the aim of the study?
To investigate if the majority of Italian children and adults are classified as having a secure attachment. 2nd: Adults are majority Catholic in Italy - does this cause unresolved attachment? Also attachment type gender differences.
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Procedure of Cassiba et al (2013)
Meta-analysis. Data from PsycINFO. Words searched 'Italian' 'attachment' and 'Strange situation procedure. 627 ppts within 17 from **. 2257 from 50 studies using Adult Attachment Interview. Results measured against US norm of attachment.
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Results of Cassiba et al (2013)
Italian children: 33% type A (insecure avoident), 53% type B (secure attached) 14% type c (insecure ambivalent). More insecure attachments than US. Italian mothers more avoidant to babies than US mothers.
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Conclusions of Cassiba et al?
Differences between Italian and America child-rearing practices explains higher type A for Italy. Development viewed as needing little adult intervention in Italy. US moms = child reflects their parents Italian moms= Child less concerned.
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Evaluation of Cassiba - Positives
- Only used 'gold standard' ** studies + AAI data of 0.75 inter-rater reliability.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When is the ‘critical period’, in Bowlby’s view?

Back

2.5-3 years. If mothering is delayed until this point, it is almost useless.

Card 3

Front

What is monotropy all about?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Bowlby quote on the importance of a mother figure

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What should the attachment figure represent for the child, and how would it react if the attachment figure left?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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