Child Development

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What are the ideal conditions for intellectual development?
Answering questions, loving and secure environment, stimulating all senses, having information explained, encouragement, support and praise, contact and communication
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Where are numbers heard?
Conversation, stories, rhymes and jingles.
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How does the development of numbers occur?
Through repeating numbers, matching number words to objects and knowing the correct order of number, learning the meanings (first), comparing numbers, learning to recognise and write numbers and manipulating numbers
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What is cot death?
The sudden, unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently healthy baby.
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What can cause cot death?
Being born prematurely, having a low birthweight, tobacco smoke, getting tangled in bedding, a minor illness or a breathing obstruction, co-sleeping.
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How can cot death be avoided? (Do's)
Always place your baby on their back to sleep, place your baby in the "feet to foot" position, keep your baby's head uncovered, use a mattress that's firm, flat, waterproof and in a good condition, breastfeed your baby
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How can cot death be avoided? (Dont's)
Smoke during pregnancy or let anyone smoke in the same room as your baby, sleep on a bed, sofa or armchair with your baby, share a bed with your baby if you or your partner smoke, take drugs or drink, let your baby get too hot or too cold.
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What is female sterilisation?
During a hospital operation the fallopian tubes are cut or blocked preventing sperm and egg from meeting.
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What is an advantage of female sterilisation?
It is permanent.*
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What is a disadvantage of female sterilisation?
The tubes can become unblocked or rejoined.
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What is the progestogen-only pill?
Makes it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus and/or implantation of fertilised ovum.
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What are the advantages of the progestogen-only pill?
Can be taken orally and can relieve PMT and painful periods.
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What are the disadvantages of the progestogen-only pill?
Must be prescribed by a doctor, if taken more than 3 hours late it becomes unreliable, vomiting and diarrhoea can make it unreliable.
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What is the combined pill?
Prevents ovaries from producing eggs.
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What are the advantages of the combined pill?
It can be taken orally.
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What are the disadvantages of the combined pill?
Vomiting diarrhoea and antibiotics can make it unreliable. If taken 12 hours late it becomes unreliable, must be prescribed by a doctor, best avoided by women who smoke.
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What is the emergency contraceptive pill?
Prevents implantation (delay ovulation)
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What is the advantage of the emergency contraceptive pill?
It can be taken orally.
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What is a disadvantage of the emergency contraceptive pill?
Prescribed by doctors, must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex.
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What is some advantages of the IUD?
Works immediately when fitted and can remain in place for 3-10years.
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What are some disadvantages of the IUD?
May cause heavier, longer and more painful periods. Not suitable for all women, must be inserted by a doctor, sometimes comes out.
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What are some advantages of the IUS?
Works immediately when inserted. Prevents pregnancy for 5 years. Periods are lighter and shorter.
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What are some disadvantages of the IUS?
Irregular light bleeding is possible for the first 3 months. Must be inserted by a doctor. Acne and tender breasts are possible side effects.
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What is natural family planning?
Identifies fertile and infertile times in the menstrual cycle so that intercourse can be timed to reduce the possibility of pregnancy.
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What are some advantages of natural family planning?
No chemical or physical intervention is used. No side effects. All cultures, faiths and religions find it acceptable.
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What are some disadvantages of natural family planning?
It is unreliable especially if periods are irregular or the woman is ill.
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What is the contraceptive injection?
Makes it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus and for a fertilised egg to implant.
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What are advantages of the contraceptive injection?
Effective for 2-3 months.
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What are some disadvantages of the contraceptive injection?
Possible side effects like irregular bleeding. There is no antidote if the woman changes her mind and must be given by a doctor.
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What is a male condom?
Sperm are prevented from entering the ******.
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What are advantages of the male condom?
Free from family planning clinics, available from supermarkets, chemists and clubs, protects both parties from STD.
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What are disadvantages of the male condom?
It may be split, damaged or slip off. It must be put on correctly. Putting it on can interrupt sexual intercourse.
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What is a female condom?
Sperm are prevented from entering the ******.
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What are advantages of the female condom?
Protects both partners for STD.
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What are disadvantages of the female condom?
Expensive to buy. The penis must be placed to enter the condom and not positioned between the condom and ******.
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What is a diaphragm?
Prevents sperm from meeting an egg by providing a barrier. Sperm are made inactive by spermicide.
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What are advantages of a diaphragm?
No health risks from side effects. A wide variety to choose from.
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What are disadvantages of a diaphragm?
Must stay in place for 6 hours after intercourse. Must be fitted by a doctor and checked every 12 months for size. Bladder infections may be a side effect.
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What is male sterilisation?
A relatively minor operation in which the vas deferens is cut or blocked using rings or clips.
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What is an advantage of male sterilisation?
It is permanent.
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What are disadvantages of male sterilisation?
Requires operation and the tubes can sometimes rejoin.
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What is an implant?
Prevents egg and sperm meeting and/or implantation.
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What are advantages of the implant?
Effective for up to 3 years. Fertility returns immediately when implant is removed.
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What are disadvantages of the implant?
Can be difficult to remove. Side effects include excessive or irregular bleeding.
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What is the withdrawal method?
Involves penis being removed before *********** so no sperm are placed in the ******.
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What is an advantage of the withdrawal method?
Good for people who find others methods unacceptable.
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What is a disadvantage of the withdrawal method?
Unreliable as sperm (*****) may leak from the penis before *********** or the man may get carried away.
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What signs may indicate you're pregnant?
Late period, morning sickness, tender breasts, fatigue, irritation, urinal conception and food cravings.
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What would the midwife ask on your first visit that might cause complications?
Drug abuse, alcohol abuse, smoking, vaginal bleeding, pelvic pains, lack of oxygen, high blood pressure, diabetes, genetic disorders, any STI's, asthma and amaemia.
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What can occur if a mum-to-be catches rubella?
It can cause birth defects.
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How big is a baby at 6 weeks?
The size of a thumbnail.
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What substances can be harmful to the baby during pregnancy?
Drugs, alcohol and nicotine as it can cause deformations to the baby and it could suffer from a lack of oxygen.
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A pregnant mum's diet should be high in which nutrients?
Carbohydrates, calcium, iron, protein and vitamin B and fibre.
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What foods that are high in protein should a mum-to-be eat?
Poultry, fish, lean red meat, milk, eggs, cheese, dried beans and lentils.
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What forms of exercise should be done during pregnancy?
Walking, hiking, swimming and low impact exercises.
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What is another name for morning sickness and why does it occur?
Nausea, it could be all day, it occurs due to the rise in hormones usually in the first 3 months.
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What foods can help morning sickness and what should be avoided?
Medication, drinking water regularly, ginger biscuits. Avoid fatty and spicy foods.
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What is the baby referred to in the first trimester?
Embryo.
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What is the baby referred to in the second trimester?
Foetus.
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How long does the baby measure before the mum-to-be can feel its movements?
16-18cm.
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At 12 weeks how long does the baby measure from its bottom to the crown of its head?
6cm.
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What can an ultrasound scan detect?
If the baby is in the right position, the sex, how developed it is, any defects and how many.
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What is meant by an amniocentesis and how is it carried out?
Fluid is drawn from the amniotic sac and tested.
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What is pregnancy diabetes?
Sugar (glucose) in the urine.
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What weeks is the third trimester?
29-40 weeks.
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What should you do if you have not felt your baby move in a few hours?
Lie on your left hand side, rub your stomach and drink some juice.
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What is heart burn and how can you avoid it?
When acid in the stomach gets pushed up into the oesophagus. Avoid spicy and fatty foods. Avoid citrus fruits. Eat little and often. Wear loose clothing, don't eat at night.
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What should you do if you are suffering from swollen ankles?
Keep your feet up.
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What causes stretch marks?
A sudden change and lack of elasticity in the skin.
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What can cause vaginal bleeding?
The placenta separates from the wall of the uterus and the placenta then lies across the neck of the cervix.
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How often do you see your midwife in the 7th, 8th and 9th months?
Every two weeks and then every week.
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What is an ectopic pregnancy?
A fertilised egg attaches itself to the wrong part of a woman's body, usually the fallopian tube.
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What is the cervix?
The narrow neck-like passage forming the lower end of the womb.
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What is an episiotomy?
A surgical cut in the perineum to prevent tearing.
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Why would you have an elective caesarian?
The baby is in the wrong position, there is more than one baby, the placenta is covering the cervix, the mother is HIV positive.
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Why would you have an emergency caesarian?
Severe bleeding from the uterus, the baby is distressed, labour has stopped, pre-eclamsia in the mother.
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What is a ventouse?
A vacuum extractor instrument that uses suction to pull the baby out.
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What can a ventouse leave?
A small mark on the baby's head called a chignon.
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What are forceps?
Smooth metal instruments that are curved to fit around the baby's head and joined at the handles.
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What can forceps leave?
Small marks on the baby's face that will disappear with time.
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What is the role of a doctor?
Treats illnesses and provides care and health education to patients.
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What is a midwife?
Specialists in pregnancy and giving birth.
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What is a health visitor?
Care from 2 weeks after your baby's birth until your child is 5.
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What is an obstetrician?
A doctor who specialises in monitoring and treating women during pregnancy and childbirth.
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What is a gynaecologist?
A surgeon who specilises in disease of the female genital tract and woman's health.
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What is weaning?
The gradual change over from a diet of milk to a variety of both liquids and solids.
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When is stage one of weaning and what should you do?
4-6 months. Food should be liquidised to remove lumps.
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When is stage two of weaning and what should you do?
6-8 months. Given hard foods to learn to chew such as rusks, sandwiches, toast, cheese, banana, ect.
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When is stage three of weaning and what should you do?
9-12 months. The baby should be fed the same meals as the rest of the family.
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What is formula milk?
A dry powder containing all the nutrients that a baby needs that you add hot water to.
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How can you sterilise feeding equipment?
Cold water sterilising solution or steam sterilising.
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What is a premature baby?
A baby born before 37 weeks.
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What are characteristics of a premature baby?
Cannot **** or swallow yet. Can't regulate their body temperature. Lungs are not properly developed. May have jaundice. Small with little body fat and red wrinkly skin.
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What do incubators do?
Helps breathing, keeps baby warm and isolated from infection, has portholes so attention can be easily given.
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What is light therapy?
Placed above an incubator to treat jaundice. Jaundice can cause brain damage.
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What does a ventilator do?
Help babies to breath. Provide oxygen at a controlled level to avoid brain damage.
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What can cause infertility?
Not enough sperm, thick cervical mucus, cancer treatment, ovulation does not take place, blocked fallopian tubes or hysterectomy.
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What does antenatal care mean?
The care you receive from healthcare professionals during your pregnancy.
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What is involved in antenatal care?
Blood tests and ultrasounds. Weighed and urine tests.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are numbers heard?

Back

Conversation, stories, rhymes and jingles.

Card 3

Front

How does the development of numbers occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is cot death?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can cause cot death?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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