Chemistry Unit Two Defintions

Defintions for Unit Two of the course 

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Unit Two- Chains, Energy and Resources
Module One- Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons
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1. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry
1. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry
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Hydrocarbons
Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing carbon to carbon multiple bonds.
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
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Alicyclic Hydrocarbon
A hyrdocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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Functional Group
The part of the organic molecule repsonsible for its chemical reactions.
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Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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Alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula CnH2n+2
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2. Naming Hydrocarbons
2. Naming Hydrocarbons
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Nomenclature
A system of naming compounds
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Alkyl Group
An alkane with a hydrogen removed, CH3 or C2H5. It is often shown as R
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4. Formulae of Organic Compounds
4. Formulae of Organic Compounds.
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General Formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series.
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Displayed Formula
The relative positioning of all atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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5. Structural and Skeletal Formula
5. Structural and Skeletal Formula
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Structural Formula
Shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from all alkyl chains leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
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7. Isomerism
7 Isomerism
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Structural Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with different arrangement of the atoms in space
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E/Z isomerism
A type of steroisomerism in which a different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
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Cis-trans Isomerism
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen on each C of a C=C double bond: the cis isomer (Z isomer) has the H atoms on the same side, the trans isomer (E isomer) has the H atoms on different sides
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8. Organic Reagents and their Reactions
8. Organic Reagents an their Reactions
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Homolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atoms forming two radicals
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Hetreolytic Fission
The breaking form a covalent bond with the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms forming a cation (+ ion) and an anion (- ion)
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-deficient center or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich center or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to forma a new covalent bond
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Addition Reaction
A reaction in which a reaction is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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Substitution Reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms. 2 reactants --> 2 products
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Elimination Reaction
The removal of a electron from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule. 1 reactant --> 2 products
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9. Hydrocarbons from Crude Oil
9. Hydrocarbons from Crude Oil
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Fractional Distillation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling points (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation usually using a fractioning column
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10. Hydrocarbons as Fuels
10. Hydrocarbons as Fuels
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Cracking
The breaking down of long chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of a shorter chained alkanes and alkenes
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
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12. Substitution Reactions of Alkanes
12. Substitution Reactions of Alkanes
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Radical Substitution
A type of substituion in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
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Mechanism
A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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Initiation
The first step in radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated from ultraviolet radiation
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Propagation
The two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction.
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Termination
The step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule.
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13. Alkenes
13. Alkenes
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Pi-Bond
The reactive part of double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals
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15.Further Addition Reactions of Alkenes
15.Further Addition Reactions of Alkenes
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Electrophilic Addition
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich center or atom where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Carbocation
A organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge
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Curly Arrow
Symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
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17. Industrial Importance of Alkenes
17. Industrial Importance of Alkenes
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Polymer
A long molecular chain built up from polymer units
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Monomer
A small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
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Addition Polymerisation
The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time, to form a very long saturated molecular chain
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Addition Polymer
A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules
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18. Polymer Chemistry
18. Polymer Chemistry
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Repeating Unit
A specfic arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again.Repeat units are included in brackets, outside of which is the symbol n
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19.Polymers- Dealing with Our Waste
19. Polymers- Dealing with Our Waste
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Biodegradable Material
A material that is borken down naturally in the environment by living organisms
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Unit Two-Chains, Energy and Resources
Module Two- Alcohols, Halogenoalkanes and Analysis
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2. Properties of Alcohols
2. Properties of Alcohols
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Volatility
The ease that liquid turns into a gas. Volatility increases as boiling point decreases
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3. Combustion and Oxidation of Alcohols
3. Combustion and Oxidation of Alcohols
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Reflux
The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.
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4. Esterification and Dehydration of Alcohols
4. Esterfication and Dehydration of Alcohols
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Esterification
The reaction of an alcohol with carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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Dehydration
An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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5. Introduction to Halogenoalkanes
5. Introduction to Halogenoalkanes
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Hydrolysis
A reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds.
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6. Reactions of Halogenoalkanes
6. Reactions of Halogenoalkanes
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Nucleophiliic Substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron deficient center or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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8. Percentage Yield
8. Percentage Yield
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% Yield=
(actual amount, in mol, of product/ theoretical amount, in mol, of product)x 100
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Limiting Reagent
The substance in a chemical reaction that runs out first
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9. Atom Economy
9. Atom Economy
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Atom Economy=
(molecular mass of the desired product/sum of molecular masses of all products) x100
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13. Mass Spectrometry in Organic Chemistry
13. Mass Spectrometry in Organic Chemistry
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Molecular Ion, M+
The positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule losses an eletron
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Fragmentation
The process in mass spetrometry that causes a positive ion to split into pieces one of which is a positive fragment ion.
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15. Reaction Mechanisms
15. Reaction Mechnaisms
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron.
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Electrophile
An electron pair acceptor
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Nucleophile
An electron pair donor
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Unit Two- Chains,Energy and Resources
Module Three- Energy
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1. Enthalpy
1. Enthalpy
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Enthalpy
The heat content that is stored in a chemical system
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Exothermic
A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is smaller than the enthalpy of the reactants , resulting in heat loss to the surroundings
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Endothermic
A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat being taken in from the surroundings
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3. Enthalpy Profile Diagrams
3. Enthalpy Profile Diagrams
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Enthalpy Profile Diagram
A diagram for a reaction to compare the enthalpy of the reactants with the enthalpy of the products
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Activation Energy
The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds.
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4. Standard Enthalpy Changes
4. Standard Enthalpy Changes
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Standard Conditions
A pressure of 100kPa (1 atmosphere), a stated temperature (usually 298K/ 25oC), and a concentration of 1.0 moldm-3(for reactions with aqueous solutions)
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Standard State
The physical state of a substance under the standard conditions of 100kPa and 298K
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Reaction
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions and products being in there standard states.
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Combustion
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a substance reacts with oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard state
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from the constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
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5. Determination of Enthalpy Changes
5. Determination of Enthalpy Changes
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Specfic Heat Capacity
The energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 degrees
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7.Bond Enthalpies
7.Bond Enthalpies
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Bond Enthalpy
The enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of given bond in the molecule of gaseous species
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Avergae Bond Enthalpy
The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission in 1 mol of a given bond type in the molecules of a gaseous species
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8. Enthalpy Changes from
8. Enthalpy Changes from
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Hess' Law
Stetes that if a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same the total enthalpy change is the same for each route
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Enthalpy Cycle
A diagram showing the alternative routes between reactants and products which allows the indirect determination of an enthalpy change from other known enthalpy changes using Hess' Law
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12. Economic Importance of Catalysts
12. Economic Importance of Catalysts
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Heterogeneous Catalysis
Catalysis of a reaction in which the catalyst has a different physical state from the reactants, frequently the reatants are gases whist the catalyst is a solid
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Homogeneous Catalysis
Catalysis of a reaction in which the catalyst and the reactants are in the same physical state which is most frequently the aqueous or gaseous state
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13, The Boltzmann Distribution
13. The Boltzmann Distribution
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Boltzmann Distribution
The distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature often shown as a graph
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14. Chemical Equilibrium
14. Chemical Equilirbium
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Dynamic Equilibrium
The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the the rate of the reverse reaction
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Le Chateliers Principle
States that when a position in the dynamic equilibrium is subjected to change the position of the equilibrium will shift to minimize the change
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Unit Two-Chains, Energy and Resources
Module Four- Resources
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4. The Ozone Layer
4. The Ozone Layer
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Troposphere
The lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere extending from the Earths surface up to about 7km above the poles and about 20km above the tropics
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Stratosphere
The second layer of the Earths surface containing the Ozone layer about 10km to 50km above the Earths surface.
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6. Controlling Air Pollution
6. Controlling Air Pollution
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Adsorption
The process that occurs when a gas,liquid or solute is held to the surface of a solid, or more rarely, a liquid.
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Card 2

Front

1. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

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1. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Card 3

Front

Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A hydrocarbon containing carbon to carbon multiple bonds.

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Preview of the back of card 5
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