Chemistry

Words and their definitions to key factors of chemistry

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 01-01-13 16:13
Permanent Dipole
A small charge difference across a bond resulting from a difference in electronegativites of the bonded atoms
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Permanent dipole-dipole force
An attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Hydrogen Bond
A strong dipole-dipole between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom on a different molecule
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Ionic Bond
Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
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Lone Pair
An outer shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding
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Metallic Bond
Electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
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Acid
A species that is a proton donor
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Alkali
Type of base that dissolves in water, forming OH-(aq) ions
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Anhydrous
A substance containing no water molecules
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Atomic Orbital
A region within an atom that an hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins
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Concentration
Amount of solute (mol) per 1dm3 of solution
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Coordinate Bond
A pair of electrons that has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only (Dative Covalent)
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Delocalised Electrons
Electrons that are shared between more than two atoms
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Displacement Reaction
Reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from an aqueous solution of the less reactive's ions
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Disproportionation
Oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction
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Electron Shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons
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Emperical Formula
The simplest whole number raito of atoms of each element in a compound
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Fragmentation
Mass spectrometry process- causes + ion to split into pieces
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Giant Covalent Lattice
3D structure of atoms bonded covalently (strong)
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Giant Ionic Lattice
3D Structure of oppositely charged ions bonded by ionic bonding
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Giant Metallic Lattice
3D Structure of + ions and delocalised electrons
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Hydrated
Crystalline & containing water
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(1st) Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms (gaseous 1+ ions) to from one mole gaseous 1+ ions (2+ if 2nd I.E)
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Successive Ionisation Energy
A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn
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Molar Mass
The mass per mole of a substance
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Oxidation Number
A measue of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
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Periodicity
A regular periodic variation of properties of properties of elements with atomic number and position in the table
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RAM
The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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RFM
The weighted mean mass of formula unit compared with 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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RIM
The weighted mean mass of a n isotope compared with 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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RMM
The weighted mean mass of a molecule cmpared with 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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Salt
Chemical compound formed from an acid, when a H+ ION FROM THE ACID HAS BEEN REPLACED BY A METAL ION
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Standard Solution
A solution of known concentration
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Volatility
The ease with which a liquid turns into a gas (increases as bp decreases)
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Water Of Crystallisation
Water molecules that form an essential part of crystalline structure of a compound
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VDW
Very weak attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring molecules

Back

Permanent dipole-dipole force

Card 3

Front

A strong dipole-dipole between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom on a different molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An outer shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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