Chemistry: Unit 2 Module 1

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Hydrocarbon
Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon ONLY
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
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Alicyclic Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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Functional Group
The part of the organic molecule responsible for it's chemical reactions
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Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but each successive member differing by CH2
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Alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula:
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Alkyl Group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed
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General Formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Displayed Formula
Shows the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Structural Formula
Shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just the carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
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Structural Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space
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Homolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom forming two radicals
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Heterolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ion) and an anion (-ion)
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Nucleophile
An atom that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophile
An atom that is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Addition Reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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Substitution Reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or groups of atoms
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Elimination Reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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Fractional Distillation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling points by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column
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Cracking
The breaking down of long chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of short chained alkanes and alkenes
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used in the reaction
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Radical Substiution
A type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
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Mechanism
A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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Initiation
The first step in radical substitution in which free radicals are generated by UV radiation
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Propergation
The two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
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Termination
The step at the end of radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule
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A pi-bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p orbitals
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Electrophilic Addition
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich atom or centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Carbocation
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge
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Polymer
A long molecular chain built up from monomer units
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Monomer
A small molecule that combines with other monomers to form a polymer
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Addition Polymerisation
The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules *** on to a growing polymer chain one at a time, to form a very long saturated molecular chain
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Addition Polymer
A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules
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Repeat Unit
A specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again
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Biodegradable Material
A material that is broken down naturally in the environment by living organisms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Back

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

A hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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