Chemistry topics 31, 32, 33

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T31- what is the test for these presence of chlorine?
It will bleach damp litmus paper and turn it white
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T31- what is the a test for oxygen?
it relights a glowing splint
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T31- what is the test for carbon dioxide?
It turns limewater cloudy
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T31- what is the test for hydrogen?
it makes a squeaky pop with a glowing splint
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T31- what is the test for ammonia?
it will turn damp red litmus paper blue and has a strong smell
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T31- what is the test for the presence of water?
add CuSO4 it will turn the anhydrous, white copper II sulfate crystals blue.
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T31- How can you identify water as pure?
Pure water (one substance) will boil at 100 degrees Celsius, and will freeze at 0 degrees Celsius
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T32- Define a HYDROCARBON
contains carbon and hydrogen atoms only
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T32- Define the term 'saturated,' and explain how alkanes are saturated
when all the bonds are used, it can be described as saturated. In an alkane, all the four bonds available are bonded to a hydrogen, so it is saturated.
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T32- what does the term HOMOLOGOUS series mean?
when the same general formula can be used to work out the molecular formula of any member of the series
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T32- What's the general formula for alkenes?
Cn H2n+2
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T32- Name the first five alkanes and state their molecular formula
Methane: CH4 Ethane: C2H6 Propane: C3H8 Butane: C4H10 Pentane: C5H12
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T32- what is the way to remember this?
Mice Eat Peanut Butter Passionately
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T32- What are the products of complete combustion of alkanes?
carbon dioxide,water and energy
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T32- what are the products of incomplete combustion of alkanes?
carbon dioxide + water + carbon + carbon monoxide
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T32- Explain the formation of haloalkanes
In the presence of UV light, a substitution reaction will take place where a bromine atom takes the place of one of the hydrogen atoms in the methane molecule. BROMOMETHANE
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T33- What is different about alkenes?
they have a double covalent bond between two of the carbon atoms in the chain
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T33- why are alkenes unsaturated?
because the double bond could open to make more bonds.
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T33- what is the general formula for alkenes?
CnH2n
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T33- what are the first three alkenes and what are their molecular formulae?
ethene: C2H4 (have to start with at least two carbon atoms as there is always a double bond) Propene: C3H6 Butene: C4H8
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T33- what is an isomer?
It is when two molecules have the same molecular formula, but a different structure. (In butene, the double bond can be in a different place)
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T33- Halogens + alkenes form?
HALOALKANES
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T33- explain this process
Dibromoethane. the double bond of the carbon opens up to bond with the Br2 atoms. this can be described as an addition reaction.
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T33- what can the addition of bromine to an alkenes test for?
a double carbon bond. as the bromine water added is orange, and dibromoethane is colourless. (shaken)
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Card 2

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T31- what is the a test for oxygen?

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it relights a glowing splint

Card 3

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T31- what is the test for carbon dioxide?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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T31- what is the test for hydrogen?

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Card 5

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T31- what is the test for ammonia?

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