Chemistry Unit 2.1 - Bonding and Structure

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What is a compund?
Contains two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
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What is ionic bonding?
The transferring of electrons. Atoms will lose/gain an electron in order to achieve a full outer shell.
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What is covalent bonding?
The sharing of electrons. Non-metal x non-metal.
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What happens if an atom loses/gains an electron?
If an atom LOSES an electron, it will have a positive charge. If an atom GAINS an electron, it will have a negative charge.
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What happens if a non-metal reacts with a metal?
The non-metal will gain an electron, whilst the metal loses an electron. They both form stable electronic structures. COVALENT BONDING.
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What do ions have the electronic structure of?
A noble gas.
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How are ions held together?
Through very tight bonds due to strong forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions. The electrostatic force of attraction is called IONIC bonding.
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What do ionic bonds result in?
Giant lattices (giant structures). Giants lattices are v.strong because the force acts equally in all directions. Giant lattices are in regular layers - this is because the ions all pack together neatly.
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How can we show the formation of ionic bonding?
Cross, and dot diagrams.
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Describe covalent bonding.
Covalent bonds share electrons. The atoms in the molecules are then held together by the shared pairs of electrons. Some covalent bonds have giant structures, where huge numbers of atoms are held together by a network of covalent bonds.
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How many covalent bonds do you need to have a giant covalent lattice? (macromolecules)
4 covalent bonds. For example, diamond has 4 carbon covalent bonds.
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Describe the structure of diamond.
High melting and boiling points due to many strong covalent bonds. Very strong due to regular arrangement of atoms. Doesn't conduct electricity due to no free charged particles. 4 bonds between carbon atoms. Made up of carbon.
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Desribe the structure of graphite.
Made of carbon. High melting/boiling point due to covalent bonds. Can conduct electricty (delocalised electrons), hwich allows graph. to be used as lubricant (layers slide over each other). 3 bonds between carbon atoms.
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Describe simple covalent structures.
Low melting point. Does not conduct electricity. Not very strong.
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Describe the properties of ioninc bonding.
High melting and boiling points. Strong ionic bonds. Brittle; if the atoms move, the alternating lattice is disrupted so the positives may be near positive atoms, which will repel and break.
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Describe the propertiesof ioninc bonding ... (cont.)
In a solid ionic structure, there are no free charged electrons. This means it will not conduct electricity. They do conduct when molten, as the ions are free to move.
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Desribe the properties of ioninc bonding ... (cont.2)
In a solid ionic structure, there are no free charged electrons. This means it will not conduct electricity. ◦They do conduct when molten, as the ions are free to move.
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Card 2

Front

What is ionic bonding?

Back

The transferring of electrons. Atoms will lose/gain an electron in order to achieve a full outer shell.

Card 3

Front

What is covalent bonding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens if an atom loses/gains an electron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens if a non-metal reacts with a metal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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