Chemistry Gateway C1

What are crude oil , coal and gass
They are Fossil fuels
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what are non renewable fuels
Fuels which take a long time to make and are used faster then they are formed
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why are fossil fuels finite
they are no longer being made or being made very slowly
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why are fossil fuels non renewable
They are being used faster then they are being formed
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what is crude oil
A mixture of many hydrocarbons
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What are the problems with Crude oil being Finite
all readily accessible resources will be used,finding a replacemen and conflict between making petro chemicals and fuels,
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What are petrochemicals
a chemical obtained from petroleum and natural gas.
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what does fractional distillation do
Separates crude oil into useful products or Fractions
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Why does fractional distillation work
it works because of the difference in boiling points
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What fractions come from crude oil
LPG,petrol,diesel, paraffin, heating oil,fuel oils and bitumen
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describe how fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions
1.Crude oil is heated 2.use of fractional column which has a temperature gradient 3.the fractions with lower boiling points exit at the top and high boiling points at the bottom
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how do Molecular size help separate out fractions in fractional distilation
the smaller the molecule the lower its boiling point and so it exits and a different point
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how do intermolecular forces help separate out Fractions
The force between the molecules with smaller molecules it is easy to brak the bonds and make them vaporise
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small molecules go to the top of the column why
The smaller the molecule the lower the boiling point it rises because theinter-molecular forces between them in weaker meaning it is easier to vaporize them
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large molecules remain lower down the column why
they will remain lower down becuse the boiling point is higher due to the strong inter molecular forces
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what are the environmental problems with the transportation of crude oil
damage to birds feathers causing death and the use of detergents to clean up the oil slicks damage wild life
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What are the political problems associated with Crude oil
future supply issues and UK dependence on crude oil from unstable countries
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what is the process of cracking (basic)
needs a catalyst and a high temperature converts large hydrocarbons into smaller ones that are more useful as well as making more petrol
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what is cracking(standard)
converts large alkane molecules into molecules into smaller alkene and alkane
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what can alkene molecules be used for
they can be made into polymers
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what are factors thought about when choosing a fuel
energy value,availability,storage,cost,toxicity, pollution and ease of use
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why is the amount of fossil fuels used increasing
growth of developing countries and increased world population
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what does complete combustion require
a plentiful supply of oxegen
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what does the complete combustion of a hydro carbon leave
water and carbon dioxide
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give the general equation for complete combustion
hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
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give the word equation for the compleate combustion of ethane
ethane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
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give the symbol equation for propane
C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O
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give the general equation for incomplete combustion
hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon monoxide + carbon + water
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what elements does air contain
oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor and carbon dioxide
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what controls the level of carbon dioxide in the air
photosynthesis, respiration and conbustion
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what gasses are stay approximately constant
oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen
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what is the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere
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what is the percentage of nitrogen in the atmosphere
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what is the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air
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how did we get the present day atmoshere
original atmosphere came from gasses escaping the earth and photosynthesis increased oxygen levels until today
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what 2 main things increases combustion
deforestation and population
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what are the environmental impacts of carbon monoxide
its a poisonous gass
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what causes carbon monoxide
incomplete combustion of petrol or diesel in car engines
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what are the environmental impacts of oxides of nitrogen
photo-chemical smog and acid rain
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what causes oxides of nitrogen
internal combustion in enguines
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what are the environmental impacts of sulfur dioxide
acid rain that kills plants and aquatic life as well as eroding stonework and corrode metals
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what causes sulfur dioxide
when sulfur impurities in fossil fuels are burnt
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what allows inside a combustion engine for oxygen and nitrogen to make oxides of nitrogen
high tempertures
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what does a catalytic converter to carbon monoxide
it removes from the exhaust gasses of cars
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why is it important that atmospheric pollution is controlled
to protect humans and the enviroment
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what does a catalytic converter turn carbon monoxide into
Carbon dioxide
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what is the balanced equation for a carbon monoxide in a catalytic converter
2CO+2NO-> N2+2CO2 (shink the twos after a letter)
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what is a hydrocarbon
carbon and hydrogen (only) chemically combined
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what is simmiler about alkenes and alkanes
they are both hydrocarbons
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what is a saturated compound
only single covalent bonds between between carbon atoms
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what is an unsaturated compound
a compound which contains at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms
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what are alkanes
are hydrocarbons which contain single covalent bonds only
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what are alkenes
hydrocarbons that contain at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms
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how does the reaction between alkanes and bromine
bromine water is orange if alkanes are present it decolerises
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what is the reaction between bromine and alkanes
its an addition reaction and its formation is is a colourless dibromo compound
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what are polymers
large molecules that are made when many monomers join together in a polymerisation reaction
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what is an additional polymerisation
a process in which many alkane monomer molecules react together to give a polymer
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what does additional polymerisation require
high pressure and a catalyst
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what are atoms in plastics held together by
strong covalent bonds
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what are the properties of a polymer that has weak inter molecular forces
low melting point and can be stretched easily as the polymer molecules slide over one anouther
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what are the properties of a polymer that has strong inter molecular forces
strong forces (covenant or cross-linking)high melting point,cannot be stretched and are ridged
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that are the advantages of nylon
tough, lightweight and keeps water out
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that are the disadvantages of nylon
does not let water vapor through so sweat condences
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what are the advantages of GORE-TEX
tough, lightweight,keeps water out and breathable
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what is GORE-TEX
nylon laminated with polyurethane membrane
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why is GORE-TEX waterproof and yet breathable
holes in membrane are too small for water to pass through but big enough for water vapo rto pass through
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why is GORE-TEX combined with nylon
membrane is too fragile on its own
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how do we get rid of polymers
recycling,burning and land fill sites
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many polymers are non biodegradable so they will not .....
decompose or decay
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why do non biodegradable polymers not decompose or decay
cannot be done by bacterial action
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what type of polymers are scientists triyng to create
polymers that dissolve or are biodegradable
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what tells you a reaction is a chemical change
there is a new substance made, the process is irreversible and an energy change takes place
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why is cooking a chemical change
a new substance is formed and it cannot be reversed
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what happens when eggs and meat are cooked
they denature (change shape)
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why do eggs and meat taste different when cooked
the shape of the protein molecule is permanently changed
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why is a potato easier to digest when cooked
cell walls rupture meaning loss in rigidity (softer texture) and starch grains swell and spread out
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what do antitoxins do
stop food reacting with oxegen
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what improves the colour of food
food colouring
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what improves the flavor of food
flavour enhancers
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what do emulsifier do
stop oil and water mix and stop them seperating
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what does they hydrophilic end of the emulsifier do
attach to the water
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what part of the emulsifier attach to the oil
the hydrophobic end
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how does baking powder help a cake rise
the carbon dioxide that is released pushes the cake up
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what is the word equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogen-carbonate
sodium hydrogen-carbonate -> sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water
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what is the scientific name for baking powder
sodium hydrogen-carbonate
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what is the symbol equation for or the decomposition of sodium hydrogen-carbonate
2NaHCO3 -> Na2CO3 +CO2+H2O (a number after a letter is small)
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what decides if a cosmetic is natural or synthetic
its sourse
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what are esters
perfumes that have been made sythetically
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what do acids and alcohol reacted produce
an ester and water
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why does a perfume need to evaporate easily
so that perfume particles can easily reach the nose
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how is a perfume not posionus
it is non-toxic
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why do perfumes need to not react with water
so they do not react with perseration
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what is the property that means the perfumes do wash of easily
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what do particles need in order to overcome the attraction to outer molecules in the water
sufficient energy
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why is easy to overcome the attraction between particles in the liquid
the particles have weak attraction between each outher
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what is special about a mixture between a solvent and solute
they do not separate out
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why does water not dissolve nail varnish
attraction between the water molecules is stronger then the attraction between the water and the nail varnish
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what does solvent do in paint
make it easier to spread
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what does binding medium do in paint
makes the paint stick to the surface
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what is used to give paint colour
a pigment
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in oil paint what is done to the pigment
it is dependence in the oil
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what usually dissolves the oil in an oil paint
a pigment
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what is a colliod
where the particles are mixed and dispersed but not dissolved
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why do the components in a colloid not separate out
he components do not separate out because their particles are small enough not to settle at the bottom.
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how do most paints dry
the solvent evaporates
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what are emulsion paints
a water based paint that dries when the solvent evaporates
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how do oil paints dry
the solvent evaporates and the oil is oxidised by atmospheric oxegen
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why are thermometric pigments special
they change colour when heated
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why are acrylic paints added to thermochromic paints
to make even more colour changes
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why do phosphorescent pigments glow in the dark
they absorb and store light energy then release it over a period of time
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why are phosphorescent pigments better then alternative radioactive substances
they are much safer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what are non renewable fuels


Fuels which take a long time to make and are used faster then they are formed

Card 3


why are fossil fuels finite


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


why are fossil fuels non renewable


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is crude oil


Preview of the front of card 5
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