Chapters 13-14

  • Created by: coco267
  • Created on: 18-05-19 17:03
When Britain declared war in 1914, it did so, on behalf of its empire. List up to 5 colonies that answered the call for troops and the amount of men that fought?
Australia / New Zealand / India / Canada / South Africa / Other African colonies and 1.4.
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What effect did the war have on Indian nationalists and what was Britain’s response?
Led to a growing support for Indian Independence / promised ‘responsible’ self-government including democratic self determination.
2 of 29
List the effects the war had on the African colonies?
Led to the development of independence movements / First Pan African Congress held in France 1919 / South Africa attended Versailles Peace Conference to present case.
3 of 29
What was a mandate and how did Britain benefit?
An agreement to take over a territory in the promise to guide it to self-determination/ independence.
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Why was self-determination at odds with the British Empire and what was the likely impact?
The belief that all nations should rule themselves and not be ruled by imperial powers. Would lead to rise in independence movements.
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Name the key geographical (for the 20th century) area where Britain had mandates and in which it had previously had limited/no control
The Middle East.
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Why was the Middle East so important to Britain?
Crucial area since it incorporated the main overland route to India and Asian colonies.
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What was the Balfour declaration?
Expressed sympathy with the Jewish wish to create a national homeland for the Jews in Palestine without undermining the rights of the Arab population in Palestine.
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What was the legacy of the declaration?
Led to violent clashes between Arabs and Jews / increasing Jewish immigration into Palestine which make it difficult for the British to fulfil their promise to the Palestinian Arabs.
9 of 29
Despite being at its peak by 1920 – the empire was significantly challenged in its oldest colony; which one?
Ireland.
10 of 29
What were the key events in that country for 1916 / and 1921?
Easter Rising in 1916 and Anglo Irish Treaty of 1921 which divided up the island of Ireland.
11 of 29
Which other imperial possession was granted independence in 1922 (although it continued to be a client state until 1954?
Egypt
12 of 29
Which post-war mandate was lost in 1932?
Iraq (Mesopotamia)
13 of 29
List 2 key geographical areas of conflict in the Second World War
North Africa / South East Asia.
14 of 29
What was the most significant loss for the British in 1942 and why was it important?
Singapore/main military naval base in the region (largest surrender of British troops in history)
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Where else did the Japanese invade?
Hong Kong / Malaya / Burma
16 of 29
What myth did the Japanese victory end and what was the consequence?
White invincibility / rise in independence movements.
17 of 29
Name 2 key nationalist figures that fought for the Japanese against the British
Subhas Chandra Bose / Aung San.
18 of 29
List the 3 immediate results of the ending of WWII for Britain?
Economic position severely weakened (massive debts) / Labour government under Atlee / Independence movements had developed in India and Middle East.
19 of 29
What major piece of legislation had occurred in India by 1919, which allowed for a limited system of self-government based on the sharing of powers between Indian ministers and the Viceroy?
Government of India Act.
20 of 29
This was seen by many to be too favourable to the nationalist cause and was followed by a tougher stance? Name the Act and the power it gave to the British
The Rowlatt Act – gave authorities powers to arrest and imprison anyone who protested against British rule.
21 of 29
Which tragic event happened in 1919 as a consequence of the Rowlatt Act and with what consequence for Britain’s future in India?
The Amritsar Massacre and the increased popularity of the nationalist cause.
22 of 29
Name 2 key Indian nationalists that rose to prominence in the inter-war years.
Muhammad Ali Jinah and Mahatma Gandhi.
23 of 29
List 2 reasons why the Labour government decided to grant India independence as soon as possible.
To stop violent resistance if they stayed / No longer a valuable market for British goods / activities of INC and pro-independence feeling.
24 of 29
Why did the British reject self-governing Dominion status for India at the Round Table Conferences of 1930-1?
They doubted the competence of non-white leaders and were concerned for India’s strategic and economic importance for Britain.
25 of 29
List 2 significant points of the 1935 Government of India Act.
Widened franchise from 7 to 35 million/ Provinces were completely self-governing.
26 of 29
Briefly describe the difference between Indirect British rule and white settler colonies as they relate to Africa?
Indirect British rule – rule through traditionally established rulers in a bit to increase economic value to empire and improve living standards (e.g East and West Africa) White settler colonies – White settlers who were allowed a degree of self –gov
27 of 29
In Palestine there was growing religious division between Arabs and Jews. There were also problems over landholding – why?
Arabs tended to be poor farmers and rented land from absentee landlords / Jews had access to funds in order to buy up land and many Arabs were evicted off their land as a result.
28 of 29
List key points that was laid out in the Statue of Westminster.
Some dominions should become independent nations Laws passed in Britain could not be enforced in those countries without the permission of their own parliaments.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What effect did the war have on Indian nationalists and what was Britain’s response?

Back

Led to a growing support for Indian Independence / promised ‘responsible’ self-government including democratic self determination.

Card 3

Front

List the effects the war had on the African colonies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was a mandate and how did Britain benefit?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was self-determination at odds with the British Empire and what was the likely impact?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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