- The Anti-Socialist Laws 1878-1890 actually encouraged the working class's eagerness for political action.
- 1907 - SPD leadership aimed towards reformism
- By 1914 there were approx 2.5 million German workers who were members of trade unions.
- 400,000 of them went out on strike at some time during 1913 for better working conditions.
- 1910 - SPD had 720,000 members - largest socialist party in Europe.
- 1912 election - the SPD became the largest party in the Reichstag - 110 seats. Gaining up to 75% of the vote on the eve of war.
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- German Colonial League (1882)
- The Pan German League (1890)
- The Navy League (1898)
- The Central Association of German Industrialists (1886)
- The Agrarian League (1893)
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- Aggressive foreign policy - demands for international expansion.
- Demands for constitutional reforms - strengthening the power of the Reichstag.
- The demand for social reform.
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- 1898 - von Tirpitz's first Navy Law. Supporters say - large fleet necessary for protection of Colonies and Germany's 'Great Power' status.
- Tirpitz's risk theory - strong navy as deterrrent to prevent other naval powers from attacking it.
- 1900 2nd Navy Law - 38 battleships in 20 years.
- 1906 response to Dreadnought - 3rd Navy Law - 6 battle cruisers, widening Kiel Canal
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von Bulow's reforms.
Count Arthur von Posadowsky Interior Minister
- Old Age and Invalidity Law - amended June 1899. Increase OA Pensions, extension of compulsary insurance.
- 1900 extension of accident insurance
- December 1902 - new Tariff Law! Restored higher duty on agricultural imports = rise in food prices - influence Agrarian Leauge. However this resulted in a rise in support for SPD plus balance of power to Centre Party.
- April 1903 Sickness Insurance Law Amendment - 26 weeks
- Late 1908 - No children under 13 to be employed.
- Limiting to six hour day for kids aged 13-14 and 10 hours for kids aged 14-16.
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- Attempt to reform Prussian Voting System in 1910 - blatantly unfair (illustrated by 1908 election to Prussian Landtag. Conservatives: 16% of the vote, 212 seats, SPD: 23% of vote, 7 seats) But shot down by conservative opposition - protecting elites.
- Started taking control of Polish estates in the East - to please the conservatives, redistribution of land to German peasantry.
- 1911 Imperial Insurance Code - consolidation of all previous German workers insurance laws, amended and extended.
- White collar workers insured seperately.
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