Chapter 5 - Psychopathology

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  • Created by: ImanB
  • Created on: 10-04-16 11:09
Statistical deviation
Occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic. For example being more depressed or less intelligent than most of the population
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Deviation from social norms
Concerns behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community or society
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Failure to function adequately
Occurs when someone is unable to cope with ordinary demands of day to day living
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Deviation from ideal mental health
Occurs when someone does not meet a set of criteria for good mental health
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Phobia
An irrational fear of an object or situation
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Behavioural
Ways in which people act
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Emotional
Ways in which people feel
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Cognitive
Refers to the process of thinking, knowing, perceiving and believing
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Depression
A mental disorder characterised by low mood and low energy levels
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OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder)
A condition characterised by obsessions and/or compulsive behaviour
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Behavioural approach
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
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Classical conditioning
Learning by association; when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together - an unconditioned (unlearned) stimulus (UCS) and a neutral stimulus (NS). The neutral stimulus eventually produces the same response that was first produced by the UCS alone
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Operant conditioning
A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences. Possible consequences of behaviour include positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement or punishment (can be positive or negative)
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Systematic desensitisation
Behavioural therapy designed to reduce unwanted response such as anxiety to a stimulus; Teaching patient to relax then exposing them to phobia. Patient works way through hierararchy of phobic situations while maintaining relaxation
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Flooding
A behavioural therapy in which a phobic patient is exposed to an extreme form of a phobic stimulus in order to reduce anxiety triggered by that stimulus. This takes place across a small number of long therapy sessions
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Cognitive approach
The term cognitive has come to mean mental processes so this approach is focussed on how our mental processes (e.g. thoughts, perceptions and attention) affect behaviour
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Negative triad
Beck proposed three kinds of negative thinking that contributed to becoming depressed. Negative views of the world, the future and self. These views lead to interpreting their experiences in a negative way and make them more vulnerable to depression
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ABC model
Ellis proposed that depression occurs when an activating event (A) triggers an irrational belief (B) which in turn produces a consequence (C). i.e. emotional repsonse like depression. The key to this process is the irrational belief
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Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)
Method for treating mental disorders based on cognitive and behavioural techniques. From cognitive view point, therapy aims to deal with thinking i.e. challenging negative thoughts. Therapy also includes behavioural techniques/behavioural activation
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Irrational thoughts
Also called dysfunctional thoughts. In Ellis' model and therapy, these are defined as thoughts that are likely to interfere with a person's happiness such dysfunctional thoughts lead to mental disorders such as depression
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Biological approach
A perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetic inheritance and neural functions
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Genetic explanation
Genes make up chromosomes and consist for DNA which codes for physical features in organisms (eye coulour/height) and psychological features (mental disorder/intelligence). Transmitted from parents to offspring i.e. inheritance
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Neural explanation
The view that physical and psychological characteristics are determined by the behaviour of the nervous system in particular the brain as well as infividual neurons
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Drug therapy
Treatment involving drugs i.e. chemicals that have a particular effect on the functioning of the brain or some other body system. In the case of psychological disorders, such drugs affect neurotransmitter levels
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Card 2

Front

Concerns behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community or society

Back

Deviation from social norms

Card 3

Front

Occurs when someone is unable to cope with ordinary demands of day to day living

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Occurs when someone does not meet a set of criteria for good mental health

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An irrational fear of an object or situation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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