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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha



PSYCHOLOGY ­ PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Defining Abnormality
Deviation from Social Norms
=Behaviour is seen as abnormal if it goes against approved and
expected ways of behaving
Explicit rule= Spoken rule, Stealing, driving on the wrong side, etc.
Implicit rule= Unspoken rule, e.g. standing too…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

someone is abnormal or not, BUT when several are present in an
individual, then they could be
Abnormal characteristics:
-Suffering= We all suffer
-Maladaptiveness= Prevents someone from achieving their major life goals
-Vividness & unconventional behaviour= Unusual behaviour, e.g. living in a…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

o However... as the twins reared in the same environment ,cause and
effect cannot be established, they would have reared in the same way
and this could account for the development of schizophrenia

Evaluation
Reductionism
-Suggests that all abnormal behaviours simply stem…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

However, as the twins were reared in the same environment, cause and effect cannot
be established, as they have been reared in the same way and this could account for
them having schizophrenia.

This approach is reductionism, as it suggests that all…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

o UCS-Loud bang (Created by hitting a steel bar behind little Albert's head
with a hammer) + NS-White rat= CS- Association and so CS -> CR

o However, this study was conducted only on one little boy and therefore
cannot be generalised.…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

have more control over their life, so not eating is positively reinforced. Also, those with
phobias, may get anxious and then try to avoid the object or situation. This prevents
the anxiety, which acts as a negative reinforcement.

This approach can be…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

A further weakness is the approach suggests it is down to our thought processes and
therefore the blame lies with the person, rather than with their biological make up or
environment. Making the person feel to blame, may only make the situation…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

Rational-Self

Inner desire
Seeks pleasure + immediate gratification `I want'

>>Dominant part of the psyche= Erotic personality time, e.g. rapist
>>Obsessional OCD, narcissistic personality (selfish)

Study to Support
A study to support is by Freud who studied Little Hans. The father reported…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

Anti-depressant drugs
Improves the mood by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as
serotonin
Anti-psychotic drugs
Sedate and alleviate symptoms like hallucinations and delusions
Used for mental disorders like schizophrenia
Works by blocking the D2 receptor for dopamine

Evaluation
Side effects
>>Drugs…

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Chapter 3/3 Jemini Barchha

Uses reverse conditioning and tries to replace a maladaptive response by
eliciting a healthier response
A person is gradually exposed to the object or situation they fear whilst in
relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished


It works by:
1) Giving…

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