Cells, microscopes and enzymes

What does a nucleus do?
Contains genetic material which is arranged into chromosomes.
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What does a cytoplasm do?
Gel-like substance. Where most of the reactions happen.
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What does a cell membrane do?
Holds the cell together and controls what can get in and out.
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What do mitochondria do?
Where most of the respiration reactions happen. Respiration transfers energy that the cell needs to work.
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What do ribosomes do?
Create proteins.
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What does a cell wall do?
Made of cellulose. Supports the cell and strengthens it.
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What does a vacuole do?
Contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts. Maintains internal pressure to support the cell.
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What do chloroplasts do?
Where photosynthesis occurs which makes food for the plant. Contains a green substance called chlorophyll.
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What 6 organelles do animal cells have?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.
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What 3 organelles (apart from the ones animal cells do) do plant cells have?
Cell wall, vacuole and chloroplasts.
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What 4 organelles do bacterial cells have?
Chromosomal DNA, ribosomes, cell membrane and plasmid DNA.
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What is chromosomal DNA?
Only in bacterial cells, one long circular chromosome that has subcellular structures. It floats free in the cytoplasm. They use this because there is no ucleus.
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What is plasmid DNA?
Small loops of extra DNA, aren't part of the chromosome. Plasmids contain genes for things like drug resistance and can be passed between bacteria.
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What are multicellular organisms?
Contain lots of different types of cells.
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What is a specialized cell?
Cells that have a structure which makes them adapted to their function.
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How are egg cells specialized?
Contains nutrients in the cytoplasm to feed the embryo, it has a haploid nucleus. Straight after fertalisation, its membrane changes structure to stop any more sperm getting in. Ensures offspring have the right amount of DNA.
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How are sperm cells specialized?
Has a long tail to swim. Has a lot of mitochondria to provide energy needed to swim the distance. Has an acrosome at the front of the head where it stores enzymes needed to digest its way to the membrane of the egg cell. Contains a haploid nucleus.
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How are ciliated epithelial cells specialized?
They have cilia to trap mucus, and beat the substances in one direction.
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What is the standard form equation for millimetres?
x 10(-3)m
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What is the symbol for millimetres?
mm
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What is the standard form equation for micrometres?
x 10(-6)m
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What is the symbol for micrometres?
μm
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What is the standard form equation for nanometres?
x10 (-9)m
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What is the symbol for nanometres?
nm
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What is the standard form equation for picometres?
x10 (-12)m
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What is the symbol for picometres?
pm
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How do you get from millimetres to micrometres?
x1000
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How do you get from micrometres to millimetres?
/1000
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What is the equation for magnification?
image size/real size
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What is the equation for image size?
magnification x real size
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What is the equation for real size?
image size/magnification
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What do you need to do to the units before completing an equation?
Keep the units the same.
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What setting should a microscope be on when starting?
The lowest powered objective lens.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does a cytoplasm do?

Back

Gel-like substance. Where most of the reactions happen.

Card 3

Front

What does a cell membrane do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do mitochondria do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do ribosomes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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