Cell Structure

  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 09-01-18 16:14
What is the purpose of mitochondria?
To provide energy in the form of ATP (aerobic respiration)
1 of 32
How many different organelles rely upon lipid membranes?
All organelles
2 of 32
Why do eukaryotic cells have organelles?
Provides specialised functions
3 of 32
Give examples of prokaryotes (2)
Bacteria and cyanobacteria
4 of 32
Give examples of eukaryotes (4)
Protoctists, fungi, plants and animals
5 of 32
Give features of prokaryotes (8)
1-10 microns, anaerobic/aerobic metabolism, few/no organelles, circular DNA, RNA synthesised in same compartment, no cytoskeleton, chromosomes attached to plasma membrane, mostly unicellular
6 of 32
Give features of eukaryotes (8)
10-100 microns, aerobic metabolism, many organelles, linear DNA, RNA synthesised in nucleus/protein synthesis in cytosol, cytoskeleton present, chromosomes pulled apart by spindle fibres, multicellular
7 of 32
State the structural levels of the body (5)
Cells - tissues - organs - organ systems - organism (perform a particular function)
8 of 32
What is the fluid mosaic model?
Describes the structure of the plasma membrane (proteins/lipids)
9 of 32
What is a phospholipid?
A lipid which has a phosphate group attached (hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail)
10 of 32
What is the function of cholesterol?
Regulates the fluidity of the plasma membrane
11 of 32
What are the three types of cellular transport?
Passive, facilitated and active transport
12 of 32
Give examples of essential ions
Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, hydrogen and chloride (bind to protein receptors, metabotropic, adenylyl cyclase, downstream cellular effect)
13 of 32
What is cell recognition?
Detection of self antigens (used in immune system)
14 of 32
What is endocytosis?
Formation of an endosome (substances enter cell)
15 of 32
What is exocytosis?
Vesicle binds to plasma membrane (invaginate). Releases contents out of cell
16 of 32
What is the function of the nucleus?
Site of transcription, mRNA moves out of nucleus, DNA kept inside nucleus, mRNA leaves nucleus via nuclear pores. Nucleus contains chromosomes
17 of 32
What is the function of the nuclear pores?
Nuclear pore complex collapses, able to regulate size of pores, regulate nuclear transport. Allows mRNA to leave the nucleus (to go to ribosomes on RER for protein synthesis: transcription and translation). Prevents DNA leaving nucleus (too large)
18 of 32
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
RER is the site of protein synthesis and the SER involves post translation (folding)/manufacture and store carbohydrates and lipids
19 of 32
What is the function of the Golgi network?
Packages and processes proteins. Secretory vesicles from ER binds to Golgi network. Vesicles travel towards plasma membrane after modification. Golgi network found in specific part of cell (surrounded by ER)
20 of 32
What is the function of a lysozyme?
Breaks down damaged proteins. Breaks down any proteins entering via endocytosis. Engulf package, release enzymes, break down proteins
21 of 32
What is the function of the mitochondria?
Matrix contains enzymes of TCA cycle. Cristae contains enzymes of mitochondrial respiratory chain. Microenvironment within organelle. Two membranes. Matrix Inter-membrane space. Able to regulate environment within organelle. Fatty acid oxidation
22 of 32
Mitochondria have similar characteristics to what?
Resembles bacteria. Mitochondria/chloroplasts evolved from bacteria. Nuclear DNA (half - for energy production). Mitochondria regulates cell survival
23 of 32
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death (packaged, destroyed without affecting other cells)
24 of 32
What is necrosis?
Spontaneous cell death
25 of 32
What shape would a cell naturally form?
Sphere (ovum - only cell which forms a sphere)
26 of 32
Give examples of cell morphology (7)?
Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, spherical, torpedo, neurone, star-like
27 of 32
What holds the shape of a cell together?
The cytoskeleton
28 of 32
What are the general functions of the cytoskeleton?
Holds shape. Holds organelles in position. Organelles able to move to different areas of the cell. Movement of vesicles, neurotransmitters
29 of 32
What are microfilaments?
Microfilaments made of actin. Contracts. Addition of an active molecule. Package transported. Main frame. Able to change shape of cell. 5-9 nm in size. Structure just under plasma membrane
30 of 32
What are intermediate fibres?
They anchor organelles e.g. nucleus. Provides strength. Twisting provides more force. Breaking one strand means other strands take up the strain. 10 nm in diameter
31 of 32
What are microtubules?
They make up the centromere and are involved in mitosis. They are 25 nm in diameter
32 of 32

Other cards in this set

Card 2


How many different organelles rely upon lipid membranes?


All organelles

Card 3


Why do eukaryotic cells have organelles?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Give examples of prokaryotes (2)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Give examples of eukaryotes (4)


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Pharmacy resources:

See all Pharmacy resources »See all Cell Structure resources »