CC- athens

Zeus: symbol, job?
sitting on throne, holding a sceptre. thunderbolt. king of gods. protecter of strangers and guests. wife=hera (had many affaires.)
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Posiedon: symbol, job?
god of sea, patron god of corinth, famous for trade and sailing. God of earthquakes. Polyphemus' dad. trident.
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Hephaistos: symbol, job?
god of fire and metal working. worshipped by smiths. lived in volcanoes. Lame - throne of mt O. Married to Aphrodite who had many effaires with ares, H caught them once in a big net. Anvil is symbol.
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Apollo: symbol, job?
music, arts, education, medicine, disease, prophecy, and the sun. beautiful, short curly hair. Lyre, and a quiver of arrows, bow. called phoebes (shinning, god of sun.) born in delos, mother letos banned from earth by hera because letos had an affair
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Ares: job, symbol?
war (violence). 'dread ares' unthinking violence. amour.
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Hermes: job, symbol?
messenger, protecter of travellers and trades. invented lyre and stole apollos cattle. escorts souls to underworld. winged sandals.
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Dionysos: job, symbol?
God of drama wine and revelry. zeus = father. semele= mother. from zeus' thigh. symbol= vines and ivy. meaenades and styrs are companions.
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who are the maenads?
'raving ones'. female D follows. dressed in fawn-skins, carried thyrsus (long stick wrapped in vine leaves). wore ivy wreaths around heads. seen handling snakes. danced in mountains, ate raw animals they caught.
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who are satyrs?
half human, half animal male D companions. roamed woods and mt. pipe playing. built with flat noses, pointed ears. long curly hair, beards, wreaths of vine or ivy circling their balding heads.
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Hera: symbol, job?
wife of zeus, goddess of marriage, sitting on throne, solem and magestic, queen of gods. high crown and peacock.
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demeter: job, symbol?
crops and harvest. daught pesphone- season story. symbol: flowers, fruit and grain.
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aphrodite: job, symbol?
love and pretty flowers, trojan war, born in cyprus, cupid is her son, powerful hold on human hearts. seashells and doves, beautiful.
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athene: job, symbol?
goddess of battle tactics and wisdom. owl, ageis. patron god of athens. came out of zeus' skull. portryed along side nike. helmet, shield and spear.
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hestis: job, symbol?
hearth. oversaw family and domestic duties. recieved first offereing at every house hold sacrifice. cities kept a burning fire for her. fire is symbol.
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Why did Greeks spend more time on their public buildings then their own homes?
greek men didn't spend much time at home, earthquakes, hey valued the sense of equality provided by modest housing.
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describe the greek house. (what was each bit made out of?)
foundations=stone. walls=sun baked clay bricks. roof= clay. rectangular. often had small second floor reached via ladder.
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describe windows in a greek house.
not many.small and high up to keep heat and dust out of the rooms.
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describe the floors of a greek house.
either hard beaten earth or covered with tiles or blocks of stone.
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describe the entry to a greek house.
usually through a large, impressive wooden front door, which lead into the courtyard - the focal point of the house.
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describe the courtyard of a greek house.
paved and often contained a well for rain water, pits to collect waste were also common. many household tasks were performed in the courtyard.
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What was the most important room of the house? where was it located?
andron, mens party room, near front door so guests dont see rest of house.
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What happened in the andiron?
a symposium! athenian woman banned apart from hores (hestias).
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Describe decorations in androm.
cement floor was slightly raised around all four sides and couches were placed on this elevated area. centre of room lower rectangle was often decorated with pebble mosaics. walls could be ornately decorated, with paintings of men or gods themselves.
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Describe the womens area.
gynaikon, the kyria might have a bedroom of her own. main room in gynaikon is loom room. found at back of house or the first floor.
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What would the houses have if they didnt have a bathroom.
a jug and basin would be in each room, slaves emptied these outside house as athenians had no sewer system. Public slaves washed streets down on a daily basis.
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5 reasons why athenian houses were modest and their temples grand?
democracy, men wern't there much, earthquakes, respect gods, to impress foreigners.
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Describe religion in the okios.
shrine. stone alter to zeus, Herkeios (means the protector of the boundaries of the house) which had a snake on its side, found in courtyard. the hearth - an alter dedicated to hestia. loacted in communial rooms, symbolised the hearth and unity.
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how is self sufficiency achieved by athenian families?
grew their own garden produce, make their own clothes.
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Describe security of Athenian house holds.
'wall piercers' few windows high up. houses looked into courtyards.
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describe storage rooms of athenian house.
plenty of rooms for strong furniture, which meant that the houses could be tidy and a source of pride.
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describe hygiene in athenian house
cooked and kept waste near eachother, no sewer system,
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describe loactaion of rooms in okios
adron close to front door, womans rooms at back of house.
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describe decoration of okios.
interior walls plastered and painted in red and white. some walls in wealthier houses had tapestries on them and statues of dead relatives.
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describe examples of furniture in okios.
couches to dine or sleep on, chests to store clothes in, hooks in walls to hang things, chains and tablets were also used, the storage rooms kept spare furniture.
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responsibilities on kyrios?
community (represents family at public events). male role model. leaded wife. spoke to paidagogos about progress of son. buy slaves at slave market. have symposium because his image would be enhanced.
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describe work and politics of athenian men.
men who didnt need to work would spend time attending meetings, debates, votes and playing a part in politics. enjoyed socialising in the agora (market place) and gymnaisium. so they could talk about politics and catch up with new ideas. most worked
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Responsibilities of Kyria?
spinning and weaving (cloth was expensive so this saved money). childbirth (produce male heir, dangerous and painful). overseeing household tasks (keys for store room). rights and lifestyle ( husbands possession, not part of polictics, no out alone.)
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what age did athenian boys go to school and for how long?
7, 10 years.
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why did boys have to go to school?
you couldn't join in life and democracy in Athens if you couldnt read and write.
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what 4 practical things did the athenian father teach his son?
his trade, how to treat family, to observe kyrias responsibilities, how to manage and run farm estate outside city.
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What is the role of the paidogogos?
supervise boy at home and at school, escort boy to school and carry bags. sit in lessons and help with homework, teach him good manners, discipline and to set a good example. allowed to cane. report back to father.
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how were teachers viewed in athenian schools?
lowly, had to clean out school room, booed at, wealthy people thought they were better then them.
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what did athenian boys learn at school?
greek alphabet by heart, grammatise, read and write, learn illad by heart, no exams.
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what tablets and equiptment did the boys use?
wax tablet with stylus, papyrus using ink, abacus for basic numeracy.
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What musical studies do athenian boys learn?
to play kithara by ear, some learnt to play autos, poems composed to recite with music,
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what was a music teacher called?
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why were athenian boys taught music?
fundamental mark of a well educated man. heart of adult society, cultured and controlled, better balanced and behaved, taught them right behaviour.
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what physical education were athenian boys taught?
needed to be fit and strong to make good soldiers. taught: running, long jump, javelin, discus, boxing, wrestling.
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Whats the physical education teacher called? how was he recognised?
paidatribes. reconised by purple cloaks and forkstich, which was used to cane boys.
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why were Athenian boys taught physical education?
to make good soldiers, fundamental upbringing, healthy bodies and minds compelled to be weak, form of military training, reconised that physical fitness promotes mental well being.
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what invitations would the kyrios send out to his guests?
limestone stautes.
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What involvment did the kyria have in early preporations for a symposium?
making garlands for the guests to wear and decorating the andron with flowers.
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How the kyrios looked after the cooking of the food.
hire professional cook to produce the meal and discus the menu with him. If a certain dish was wanted he would hire a chef to cook that particular dish.
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what forms of entertainment would be at symposium?
musicians, dancers, acrobats, woman slaves, entertainers, courtesans, hetria.
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How would guests be seated at symposium?
recline on couch leaning on the cushions with their left elbows.
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Give an example of a dinner at a symposium.
appertiser-olives, main course - fish, sweet desert - fruit.
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if a vase is a red figured cup, how does it look?
figures in red, back ground in black.
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How many guests might be at a symposium?
7 or 8
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What happened when guests arrived at symposium?
they would remove their shoes, and the slaves would clean their feet before they entre the andiron. they would be crowned with garlands of flowers and wear decorations around their necks.
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describe kottabos
flicking a small amount of wine from a cup at a target. prizes could be extreme.
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what would men at symposiums talk about?
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what would symposium guests do before drinking?
drinking begun with a liberation to gods. especially dionysus. A hyme was sung and a symposium was chosen.
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what was the population of attica?
300,000 - 350, 000.
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what was the slave population of attica?
80,000 - 100,000
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how did people get into slavery?
from birth. captive of war. people who fell into debt.
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where were slaves taken once captured?
to the agora.
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what did the cost of slaves depend on? average price of slave?
age, talent, education and gender. 160 drachmas.
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describe domestic slave.
lived in okios. and did all tasks related to it. male slaves worked on family farm. treated as part of extended family.
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describe wage earning slaves.
belonged to wealthier families. unskilled slaves were hired out for menial work in areas such as the docks, farms or mines.
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describe public slaves.
not owned privately but by the state. the quality of a slaves life depends on his owner and the job he was assigned.
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what was a slave addressed as?
a child
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could slaves buy their freedom?
yes, if their masters allowed it.
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what could slaves not do?
vote, marry.
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what were all slaves liable to?
physical punishment
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describe the mines at laureion.
35 miles from athens. shafts:dark, narrow, prone to collapse. fumes were harmful, personal lives were harsh: lived in barracks, guarded by athenian guards, no other family members, 10000 slaves worked there.
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describe spinning and weaving process.
start with wool, prepare material and turn it into loose balls of wool, the wool is then spun into a thread with a distaff and spin dal. often dyed by berries.
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What were the personal qualities that an efficiant kyria would need?
very organised, creative, caring, high pain threshold because of childbirth.
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what does the name pathenon mean?
the maiden
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where was the altar of a greek temple and why?
outside, as they would sacrifice animals there and the pools of blood could drain away easily.
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who entered the temple?
priests and people wanting to leave offerings.
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what was the focal point of the temple?
the statue made of gold and ivory.
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what added to the sense of amazment in the temple?
there would be a pool of oil on the floor below the statue so it would shine when the sun hit it. No windows as the light would quiver.
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describe the altar
some were just a turf, a slab of natural rock with a flatterned surface or even the heaped up ashes of sacrifices over many years. more elaborate altars were carved from marble. on top of the altar was a metal tablet on which a fire was burnt in scar
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temple commissioners=?
people who looked after temples.
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foretell the future from animals
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someone who would predict the future from the flight of birds
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when was a priest required instead of a priestess? what training did they have?
none.when it was a male god a priest was required, when it was a female god a priestess.
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3 examples of priest and priestess duties
authority to fine those who commit crimes, has to be in residence no less then ten days each month. require the temple assistant. presiding at sacrifices. supervising washing and robing of the cult statue. looking after temple building.
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what things meant someone could not be a priest?
no physical defects, if a child died they had to reign. some priesthoods were only open to certain groups.
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princible of sacrifice?
person honoured the gods by giving up something valuble for them
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describe animal sacrifice.
animal ablorned with ribbons, horns gilded, people washed,
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How many festival days took place in athens?
120 days
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How did life in athens change during festivals?
everyone was involved, work was cancelled, government only met in emergencies.
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when was the city dionysia held and why?
spring, dionysus was the god of fertility and spring was the season of fertility.
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what does pahthenia mean?
all athenian
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why was pathenia festival held?
to celerbrate athenian polias' birthday
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what was the main event of the great panathenia?
the presentation of the peplos, the robe.
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describe how to peplos was made?
woven by 4 girls, 2 by 1.5 metres in size, saffrom - yellow and purple cloth they wove scenes dipicting myth of olympians' victory over the giants with zeus and athenia, took 9 months.
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describe how the peplos was transported?
like a float, attached to a shipcart
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where did the procession start and go through and end?
dipylon gate, through agora and ended up at acropolis.
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describe day 1 to 4 of procession
1, 23rd, rhapsodic + musical contests. 2, 24th, boys' and youths' athletes. 3, 25th, mens' athletes. 4, 26th, equestrian events. 5, 27th, tribal contests.
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describe day 4 to 8 of procession.
5, 27th tribal contests. 6, 28th, torch race and pannychis procession and sacrifice. 7, 29th, apobates, boat race. 8, 30th, prize giving.
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what categories were there in the rapsodic and musical contests?
singers to kithara, soloists on the kithara, singers to the autos, soloists to the aulos
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what prizes were people given in rhapsodic and musical contests?
the victorious singer to the kithara won a golden crown, and silver drachmas in cash, the second prize was 1,200 drachmas.
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how did people win in rhapsodic and musical contest?
the rhapsode who best recounted passages from the illiad and odyssey.
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who started the poetry competition?
hipparchos, son of peisistratos
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in sporting evens what catorgries were competitors divided into?
boys, beardless, youths and men.
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describe tribal contests.
torch race, euandrion (trials of strength). boatrace (regatta at the piraeus) and pyrrhic dance (war dance performed to aulos).
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what was the prize for the panathenaic games and why?
a jar of olive oil because it symbolised athena's gift to the athenians.
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in the temple of athena nike, athena held a statue of victory without wings, why?
because if victory could never fly away then athens would always win and never lose.
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why were 100 cows and sheep sacrificed to athenia?
they wanted to get athena's support and favour for their city to prosper.
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the procession took everyone past the biggest and best and most richly decorated buildings of the time, why?
because the athenians were making a statement
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the robe was carried as the sail on a wheeled ship in the procession because?
they shwed how powerful athens' navy was
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why was the feast a very important part of day? (procession)
most athenians were poor and would only eat meat at festivals.
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why did everyone in athens take part in the procession?
because the point of the festival was to bring everyone together and unify the city.
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why did the athenians offer a new robe to the statue of athenia polias?
they wanted to get athenia;s suport and favour for their city to prosper
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why did members of athens' empire carry their weapons in the procession and then offer them up to athena?
it symbolised that they were under athen's power and would not fight against athens.
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what houses the statue of athena polias?
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what houses the gold and ivory statue?
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what is the gate way to the city?
diplon gate
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what is the gate way to the acropolis?
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what houses the statue of victorious athena?
the temple of nike
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where are the games held?
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where is the sanctury of athena?
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what is the statue of athena polias made out of?
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what is the statue of athena parthenos made out of?
gold and ivory
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which month was the panathenaia held in?
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reasons for athenians celebrating panathenia?
athenas birthday, gaining athenas protection and favour for the city, showing athenas power, winning, being athenian, feasting.
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three greek play writes?
aeschylus, sophocles, euripidies.
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what did aeshylus do for drama?
added a second actor, his language is grand and serious.
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what did sophocles do for drama?
added a 3rd actor, increased chorus soze from 12 to 15. introduced scene painting on skene.
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what did euripidies do for drama?
intrested in motives and thoughts of his characters.
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Why would audienced enjoy the story of jason and the argonoughts.
myth, but has issues that affect every day people. a day out. deep emotions give cathartic experience. moral about how to live life.
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structure of a tragedy?
prologue(plot is told, scene is set). parados(entry of chorus). episodes(scenes of the play). messengers speech (violence off stage is reported). exodos(departure of actors and chorus').
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why were masks used?
larger then face to make visable, boys would play girls, two different actors needed to play one role,
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what did the masks look like?
exaggeratedly painted,made of linen, cork or wood, often hair attched to top.
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what did costumes look like?
based on two main items of greek clothing, the chiton, a himation. closley fitted, leather boots
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whats a chiton?
full length robe
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whats a himation?
worn over the chiton reached down to knees.
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most famous comedy play write?
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Describe Frogs.
the god dionysus disguises himself as Hercules so that he can go and entre the underworld and bring back from the dead the tragedian euripidies.
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what happens 2 days and 1 day before the cuty dionysia?
proagon (2) torch light procession (1)
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what happens on days 1 and 2 of city dionysia?
1=pompe, dithyrambic contests, komos. 2=opening ceremony, 3 tragedies, 1 satyr play, 1 comedy.
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what happens on days 3 and 4 of the city dionysus?
3=3 tragedies, 1 satyr play, 1 comedy. 4=3 tragedies, 1 satyr play, 1 comedy.
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what happens on day 5 of the city dionysia?
judging and prize giving, the review.
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Posiedon: symbol, job?


god of sea, patron god of corinth, famous for trade and sailing. God of earthquakes. Polyphemus' dad. trident.

Card 3


Hephaistos: symbol, job?


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Card 4


Apollo: symbol, job?


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Card 5


Ares: job, symbol?


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