Carbohydrates Revision

  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 20-02-17 17:31
What is metabolism?
The sum total of all biochemical reactions taking place in an organism.
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What is a carbohydrate?
A class of biological molecules with the general formula Cx(H2O)x.
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What elements do carbohydrates contain?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
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What are monosaccharides?
A simple sugar molecule. The monomer of polysaccharides.
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What is a monomer?
A small molecule that's one of the units that bond together to form a polymer.
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What is the formula for glucose?
C6H12O6.
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What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?
In Beta glucose, the Hydrogen is below carbon one, but in alpha glucose, the hydrogen is above carbon one.
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What is condensation?
Condensation joins molecules together, this produces water and forms a covalent bond.
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What do two alpha glucose sugars form by condensation?
Maltose.
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What is the bond that arises between carbon 1 and 4 after condensation?
1-4 glycosidic bond.
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What is an isomer?
Same formula but a different structure e.g. glucose and fructose.
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What does alpha glucose and fructose form by condensation?
Sucrose.
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What do alpha glucose and galactose form by condensation?
Lactose.
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What is hydroysis?
Breaks up molecules using water and breaks a covalent bond.
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Why is glucose well suited to its function in living organisms?
1)Soluble-transported easily.2)Small molecule can be diffused across cell membranes.3)Quickly respired to release ATP.4)Molecules can join to produce di/polysaccharides.
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What is a polysaccharide?
A polymer consisting of many monosaccharide monomers covalently bonded together.
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What two molecules is starch made up of?
Amylose and Amylopectin.
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How is amylose formed?
By the condensation of alpha glucose molecules joined by a 1,4 glycosidic bond.
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What shape are amylose chains?
Helical.
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Are there cross links between amylose chains?
No, just hydrogen bonds within molecules.
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How is amylopectin formed?
By condensation of alpha molecules joined by 1,4 glycosidic bonds and branches 1,6 glycosidic bond
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What shape are amylopectin chains?
Branched.
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Are there cross links between amylopectin chains?
No, just hydrogen bonds within molecules.
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Why is amylose a good storage molecule?
It is compact, so large amounts can be stored in a small space.
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How is glycogen formed?
By condensation of many alpha glucose joined by 1,4 glycosidic bonds. Branches created by 1,6 glycosidic bonds.
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What shape is glycogen?
Branched
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Are there cross links between molecules?
No, just hydrogen bonds within molecules.
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How does the structure of glycogen relate to its function?
1)Compact,more can be stored in a small place.2)Many terminal glucose can be released simultaneously for respiration, much more than amylose.
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Why is glycogen a good storage molecule?
1)Insoluble. 2)Doesn't affect water potential of cell.3)Can be broken down easily.4)Lots of branches for enzymes to attach to.5)Compact high energy content for mass.
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How is cellulose formed?
From many beta glucose, every other molecule inverts.
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What is the shape of cellulose?
Long,straight chains.
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Are there cross links between molecules?
Yes.
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What do the cellulose chains join to form?
Microfibrils, which join to be macrobibrils or cellulose fibres.
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How does the structure of cellulose relate to its function?
1)Chains joined by hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils, which can also be joined by hydrogen bonds to form fibres.2)Strong due to its hydrogen bonds.
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What is the test for reducing sugars?
1)Add Benedict's reagent to solution.2)Heat to above 60 degrees. 3)Reagent will turn from blue to brick red (depending on concentration) if a reducing sugar is present.
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What is the test for non reducing sugars.
1)First test for reducing sugar (add Benedict's reagent and heat)2) To a new sample,add HCl and boil.3)Cool then neutralise acid (add NaHCO3).4)Add Benedict's reagent and heat.5)Solution turns brick red if non-reducing sugar is present.
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What is the test for starch?
1)Add iodine (Potassium Iodide) to a sample.2)Reagent is orange/brown, if starch is present it will turn blue/black.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a carbohydrate?

Back

A class of biological molecules with the general formula Cx(H2O)x.

Card 3

Front

What elements do carbohydrates contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are monosaccharides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a monomer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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