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Biotechnology…read more

Slide 2

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No ethical issues
with their use Rapid life cycles
Single copy of each (large populations
gene, so no other built quickly)
genes to mask
results of genetic
Why use Asexual
Gene expression is microorganisms? reproduction, so
simple. Easy to all offspring are
genetically modify genetically
Some bacteria evolved
Very simple growth
for hot, so their Can be grown
requirements (need
enzymes and other using waste
little attention once
substances work at materials
put into fermenter
high temperatures…read more

Slide 3

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Growth curves
·Bacteria grown in a nutrient broth and they reproduce by binary fission
Lag Phase ­ Early stage, before population growth is detected.
Log/exponential phase ­ Bacteria grow and divide at the max rate for the
conditions they are in.
Stationary phase ­ Death rate = birth rate. One or more of the nutrients is
beginning to run out.
Decline/Death phase ­ Nutrients run low and waste accumulates, leading
to a larger number of cells dying than being produced.…read more

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· A metabolite is a substance made by a cell in the course of its
· Primary metabolites ­ Produced most of the time in normal metabolic
processes. Eg. Ethanol.
· Secondary metabolites ­ Produced only during certain stages of the life
cycle, normally in the death phase. Eg. Penicillin, insulin.…read more

Slide 6

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Batch culture
· Used in the production of secondary metabolites
· A fermenter is set up and is left to proceed; nothing is added or removed.
· Fed batch culture ­ A carbohydrate source is added every 30 mins to keep
the fermenter going for longer, so more Penicillin is produced than by
standard batch culture.
Temperature monitored
Oxygen added, as
and cooling water
added. Produces heat as
aerobically respires
it grows In the
Buffers added to
prevent too high a pH Nutrient inlet
Motor and paddle to
mix contents…read more

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