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Describe the overall reaction of photosynthesis as requiring energy
from light to split apart the strong bonds in water molecules, strong
hydrogen in a fuel (glucose) by combining it with carbon dioxide and
releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.

Key terms:
Photolysis ­ The splitting (lysis) of a molecule (in…

Page 2

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Light- independent reaction: Uses reduced NADP and ATP from light
dependent reaction to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate
Coenzyme used: NADP transfers hydrogen from one molecule to another so it
can reduce or oxidise a molecule. It is reduced and oxidised itself when it picks
up and drops off electrons.

Page 3

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Describe the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis including how
light energy is trapped by exciting electrons in chlorophyll and the role
of these electrons in generating ATP, and reducing NADP in
photophosphorylation and producing oxygen through photolysis of

Occurs in thylakoid membrane in a granum

Non-cyclic photophosphorylation (adding phosphate to…

Page 4

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2) The high-energy electron leaves PSII and passes along a series of
electron carrier molecules (which are embedded in the thylakoid
membrane) towards PSI ­ the molecule and photosystem constitute the
electron transport chain.
3) The electrons pass from one carrier (electron acceptor) to another in a
series of oxidation…

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organisms in respiration and the synthesis of new biological molecules
(including polysaccharides, amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids).

Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast
Also called calvin fixation as carbon from CO2 is fixed `into' organic
Includes reduction of CO2 - CO2 combined with hydrogen makes a triose…

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Nucleic acids ­ the sugars in RNA (ribose) is made using triose

The Calvin cycle needs to turn 6 times to make one glucose molecule
3 turns of the Calvin cycle make 6 molecules of GALP (2 GALP for every
1 CO2)
5 out of 6 GALP molecules are…


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