Cancer - fighting the enemy

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What is cancer?
A disease of the cells.
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How do you know if a cell is cancerous?
It divides uncontrollably
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How is cancer formed?
Mutations in DNA
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What four things can cause mutations?
Genetic inheritence, environmental factors, natural cell processes, viruses
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Tight control of ............... is lost in cancer
cell division
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What is a protein?
A complete chain of amino acids, fully folded.
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How do mutations in DNA lead to changes in the cell?
They change the amino acid sequence of a protein, thereby changing it's function
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What happens when a protein is degraded?
It gets directed to the cell surface where it is displayed in MHC complexes.
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What is an MHC complex?
a group of proteins that present a peptide.
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What type of cell will recognise epitopes when displayed in MHC complexes
T-cell
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Name three types of T-cell
Killer, helper, regulatory
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What is a cytokine
A molecule which is secreted from a T-cell and signalls to other cells to communicate with them.
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An antigen is to protein as an epitope is to...
peptide
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How do killer cells kill their target?
They release cytotoxins which will be taken up by the target cell. They are toxic and so will kill the target cell.
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What cytokine will draw in a regulatory T-cell?
IL-10
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What does a helper T-cell do?
enhances the immune response by activating other immune cells.
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How does a T-cell become fully activated
By binding to the epitope and MHC through the TCR and getting a costimulatory signal
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How can T-cells de-activate themselves
Co-inhibitory signals
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What does a regulatory T-cell do?
Suppresses the immune response.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do you know if a cell is cancerous?

Back

It divides uncontrollably

Card 3

Front

How is cancer formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What four things can cause mutations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tight control of ............... is lost in cancer

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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