BY2 flashcards

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  • Created by: jawjeener
  • Created on: 29-11-15 16:35
What are the two main causes for the decline in the number of tigers?
Over-hunting and loss of habitat
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What is the definition of 'species'?
A group of organisms which similar characteristics that can interbreed to produce fertile young.
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What's an advantage for the use of Latin names for organisms mentioned in research papers?
Worldwide identification - international
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Some fungi are plant-like in appearance. Why are they in a different kingdom?
They don't possess chlorophyll.
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What are two functions of an exoskeleton?
Support and protection
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Which are more closely related - hippos and whales or hippos and cows?
Hippos and Whales
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What is the term that describes structures that are similar in structure but have different purposes?
Homologous
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What are three factors that affect the rate of diffusion of substances into cells?
Surface area, membrane thickness, difference in concentration
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Why do large, multicellular animals need specialised exchange surfaces?
Larger animals have higher metabolic rates so they require more oxygen to respire. They have a smaller surface area to volume ratio so oxygen has to diffuse over a large distance.
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What are three different animal exchange surfaces?
Gills, lungs, trachae.
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What are three structural features of fish gills that make them efficient for gaseous exchange?
Large surface area, thin, permeable, good blood supply
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How does the counter-current flow improve the efficiency of oxygen uptake?
Maintains a concentration gradient over the whole length of the gill filament. The exchange takes place over a long period of time.
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How do insects prevent water loss from trachae?
Valves close on the spiracles when the insect is inactive.
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Why does a tracheal system limit the size of insects?
It is reliant on diffusion. If the insect was bigger, the oxygen supply would be inefficient.
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What are two advantages of using a tracheal system for gas exchange?
It is rapid, there is reduced water loss, no transport system required.
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List, in order, the structures that air passes through from the gas exchange surface to the atmosphere.
Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchus, trachea.
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What's the function of cartilage in the trachea?
Structure - prevents trachea from collapsing in inpiration
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What are the functions of the palisade and spongy mesophyll layers?
Palisade mesophyll - traps sunlight // Spongy mesophyll - exchange of gases
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What are two differences between the gas exchange in a plant leaf and gas exchange in a terrestrial insect?
Insects create mass flow, plants don't //Insects have a smaller surface area//Insects have tracheae
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What are the two distinguishing features of guard cells?
Chloroplasts // uneven thickening of inner and outer walls
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What are three features (not vessels or valves) of a transport system in animals?
Medium (blood), pump (heart), resp pigment (haemoglobin)
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What are three differences between the blood system of an insect and the blood system of a mammal?
There is no pigment in insects//open system in insects,closed in mammals//Oxygen is transported through trachea not blood
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What is an advantage of a double circulation system?
Passing through the heart two times means the blood is pumped around the body with high pressure
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What are two reasons as to why arteries have a thick, muscular wall?
To withstand pressure when blood pumped from left ventricle to the heart//To maintain the pressure
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What is the significance of the capillaries slowing down the blood flow at the tissues?
The blood flow is slowed so there is time for diffusion.
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What is the significance of the heart pumping from the base upwards?
There is a greater force of blood from the base and it ensures that the compartment is completely emptied.
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What are features of the red blood cells that make them well suited for carrying oxygen?
Haemoglobin//Large surface area////No nucleus so more room for haemoglobin
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What is the significance of the difference between the oxygen dissociation curve of a foetus and the mother?
It would be more to the left because it combines more readily with oxygen. It has a higher affinity so it takes up oxygen from the mother's haemoglobin.
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What is one change that can be observed in the blood of an athlete who had been training at high altitude?
There is an increase in the number of red blood cells.
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What is the significance of the inward movement of chloride ions into the red blood cell?
The electrochemical neutrality is preserved.
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What are the two opposing forces involved in forcing tissue fluid out of the blood plasma into the capillaries and then into surrounding tissues?
Hydrostatic pressure and water potential/osmosis
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What are the two routes by which tissue fluid returns to the bloodstream?
Venous end and lymphatic system
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What are two functions of the xylem?
To support and to transport water.
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How does water enter a root hair cell?
The root hair cells have a lower water potential than the soil solution so water moves in by osmosis.
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Why does water that passes along the apoplast pathway have to be re-routed when it reaches the endodermis?
Endodermal cells have a Casparian strip (waterproof band) which prevents water from passing through.
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What is the effect of a respiratory inhibitor on mineral uptake?
Mineral uptake is reduced/stopped because the process requires ATP.
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Would the rate of transpiration increase or decrease in the following conditions - wind speed increases, light intensity increases, humidity increases
INCREASE, INCREASE, DECREASE
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How does sunken stomata reduce transpiration?
Water evaporation is trapped - the water potential gradient between inside and outside is reduced.
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What is one way both plants and insects reduce water loss?
Cuticle // Ability to close openings (spiracles - insects//stomata - plants)
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What are the two main types of cells in the phloem?
Sieve tubes and companion cells.
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Why are there many mitochondria in companion cells?
To provide energy/ATP for the sieve tubes because they have lost their organelles.
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What is one advantage and one disadvantage of sexual reproduction?
Ad : Variation/genetically different, develop a resistant stage in life cycle // disad : need two individuals, slow, mutations
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What are two advantages of internal fertilisation?
More chance of fertilisation - gametes not wasted // independent from water // embryo better protected
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What are two adaptations of animals to life on land?
Egg with shell / internal fertilisation
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What are three reasons as to why flowering plants are so successful in the colonisation of the land?
They reproduce using pollen // The seeds have a food store so embryo grows rapidly // Water not needed for fertilisation // Leaves fall, nutrients can be recycled
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What are two groups of microscopic saprobionts?
Fungi and bacteria
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What is the definition of digestion?
''The breakdown of large insoluble molecules into soluble molecules through enzymes''
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What are the four layers of the gut wall?
Serosa, Muscle, Submucosa, Mucosa
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What are the digested products of carbohydrates, fats and proteins?
Carbohydrate - glucose // Fats - Fatty acids and glycerol // Proteins - amino acids
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What is the function of - BILE, MUCUS?
Bile - emulsifies fats // Mucus - lubricates and protects
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Where in the villus are the end products of digestion absorbed?
Glucose and amino acids - capillaries // Fatty acids and glycerol - lacteal
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What are two differences observed when comparing the dentition of the dog and the sheep?
Sheep - Molars and premolars have large cusps for grinding and no carnassials // Dog - Carnassials, large canines
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Why is it necessary for the gut of the cow to contain cellulose-digesting bacteria?
Cows cannot produce cellulase, plants contain cellulose cell walls so they need bacteria to break down the cellulose.
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What are two problems that the tapeworm has to overcome in the hostile environment of the gut of the host?
extremes in pH // Immune system of host // Digestive juices // Movement of digestive juices
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What are two adaptations of tapeworms which are due to their parasitic life?
Hooks/suckers // thick cuticle.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the definition of 'species'?

Back

A group of organisms which similar characteristics that can interbreed to produce fertile young.

Card 3

Front

What's an advantage for the use of Latin names for organisms mentioned in research papers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Some fungi are plant-like in appearance. Why are they in a different kingdom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are two functions of an exoskeleton?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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