F211 Flashcards

A short summary for everything in F211

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 07-01-13 09:50
How does a light microscope work?
The glass lense refracts light. A stain can be used to identify different parts of the specimen as different parts will absorb different amounts. The image is in colour
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How does a scanning electron microscope work?
It bounces electrons off of the specimen to give a 3D image.
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How does a transmission electron microscope work?
Electrons are passed through the specemin.
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Define magnification
The number of times something has been zoomed in.
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Define resolution
The minimum distance between two points before they appear as one.
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Nucleus
Nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus where DNA is held. The nucleus is responsible for making mRNA and ribosomes.
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RER
A network continuous with the nuclear envelope covered in ribosomes. The ribosomes carry out translation during protein synthesis.
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SER
Continuous with the nuclear envelope and is responsible for producing hormones.
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Golgi Apparatus
Package and process proteins by adding carbohydrates.
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Lysosomes
Contaon enzymes that are usd to detroy the cell once it has died or to destroy any unwanted organelles.
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Chloroplasts
Carry out photosynthesis in the stroma.
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Mitochondria
Aerobic respiration takes place in the matrix to produce ATP.
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Vacuole
Only present in plant cells and contain cell sap.
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Centrioles
Form spindles that are involved in moving chromosomes during cell division.
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Ribosomes
Made up of two sub units that carry out translation during protein synthesis.
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Cilia
Made from microtubules and move liquid over the cell surface.
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Flagella
Made of microtubules and move the cell.
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Cytoskeleton
Used to support the cell, determine its shape and provide strength.
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Cell wall
Made of cellulose and prevents a plant cell from bursting.
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Roles of membranes within a cell
Separate organelles - isolate harmful substances - controls what goes in and out of an organelle - internal transport system.
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Role of membranes on the surface of cells
Control entry and exit - separate from environment - cell recognition
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Phospholipid
Hydrophillic head and hydrophobic tail form a barrier to water and ions
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Cholesterol
Provides strength and stability for the membrane.
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Channel protein and carrier protein
Channel proteins allow larger molecules through the membrane whereas carrier proteins are involved in active transport.
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What is cell signalling?
Communication between cells where a signal (eg. hormone) has a complementary shape to a receptor and can coordinate processes
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What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from a high concenration to a low concentration. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of channel proteins to transport charged particles.
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water from a high to a low concentration across a partially permeable membrane. Water potential is the tendancy for water molecules to diffuse.
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What is cytosis?
Bulk transport in or out of a cell. Exocytosis is transport out and endocytosis is transport in (Pino=liquid - Phago=solid)
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Interphase
All DNA and cellular contents are copied and checked.
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Prophase
Chromatids condense and become visible. Centrioles move apart and spindle fibres begin to form.
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Metaphase
The nuclear membrane breaks down and spindle fibres attach to the centromeres, moving the chromatids to the equator.
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Anaphase
Centromeres divide and the chromatids move to the poles
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Telophase
Spindle fibres break down and the nuclear membrane breaks down
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Cytokenisis
The cytoplasm and the whole cell split in two.
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Budding in yeast
Asexual reproduction where a new cell forms and breaks away.
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Tissue
A collection of similar cells that work together to perform a function.
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Surface area : Volume ratio
Bigger organisms have a smaller SA:V which make exchange and transport inefficient. This means that they need a gas exchange system and a circulatory system.
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Cartilage
Tough but flexible. Supports the trachea and bronchi.
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Smooth muscle
Slowly contracts to make airways narrower.
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Elastic fibres
Recoil to force air out.
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Adaptations of alveoli
Rich blood supply - wall one cell thick - slower blood flow to allow for efficient gas exchange - folded to increase SA:V
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Inspiration
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract. This increases the volume of the thorax and reduces the pressure allowing air to rush in.
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Expiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax which causes the pressure in the thorax to increase and air rushes out.
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Tidal volume
The volume of air breathed in and out in one breath
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Vital capacity
The maximum amout of air breathed in and out in one breath
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Difference between open and closed circularoty systems
An closed system is when blood is pumped around the body in vessels whereas an open system is when blood can go anywhere without the need for vessels.
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Atrial systole
Atria contract - ventricles fill with blood - atrioventricular valves shut
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Ventricular systole
Ventricles contract and blood rushes out the aorta and the pulmonary artery, opening the semi-lunar valves.
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Diastole
Semi-lunar valves shuts and the heart relaxes. Blood flows from veins to atria
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Control of the cardica cycle
The SAN initiates the heartbeat and spreads a wave of excitation over the atria. The AVN causes a delay in the wave of excitation between the atria and the ventricles.The purkyne fibres contract from the bottom of the ventricle upwards
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Tissue fluid
Plasma is squeezed out of the capilaries at the arterial end due to the pressure gradient. Tissue fluid moves back into the capillaries at the venuous end. Any excess is drained aways as lymph.
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Describe pathways
Apoplats=cell wall - Symplast=cytoplasm - Vacuolar=vacuoles
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Transpiration
The loss of water from the ariel of a plant through the stomata.
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Xerophytes
Small leaf - tightly packed mesophyll - thick waxy cuticle - hairs - control own stomata - stomata in sunken pits - rolled leaf
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Translocation
The movement of sucrose from source to sink
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does a scanning electron microscope work?

Back

It bounces electrons off of the specimen to give a 3D image.

Card 3

Front

How does a transmission electron microscope work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define magnification

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define resolution

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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