BTEC science Unit 1

What are specialised cells?
A cell with a specific function.
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What is a prokaryote?
A bacterial cell. It is a single- celled organism and has simple structures, it doesn't have a nucleus.
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What is a eukaryote?
A plant or animal cell. It is made up of complex cells with a nucleus.
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What is an electron microscope?
A microscope that uses beams of electrons to create an image of the specimen
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Name 4 points of light microscopes.
Smaller and lighter, less expensive, lower magnification and lower resolution.
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Name 4 points of electron microscopes.
Bigger and heavier, more expensive, higher magnification and higher resolution.
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What is endothelial tissue?
It is a layer of flattened cells that are one layer thick. They line the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
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What is the process of alveoli?
They exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood capillaries to the alveolus.
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How can the endothelial tissue become damaged?
Through carbon monoxide and high blood pressure, it can damage the lining of the arteries. Can lead to atherosclerosis.
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What is the cell wall used for?
It is used for support.
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What is the function of the nucleus?
It directs cell activities and stores genetic information called chromosomes and DNA.
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What does the cell membrane do?
It allows small molecules in and out of the cell.
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What does the mitochondria do?
Makes energy from glucose via the process of respiration.
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What is the function of the cytoplasm?
All chemical reactions take place here.
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What does the vacuole do?
It makes the plant cell turgid.
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What are the chloroplasts?
They use sunlight to create energy for photosynthesis. Contains chlorophyll which makes the leaves green and absorbs sunlight.
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What is the equation for magnification?
Size of image (I) / Actual size (A)
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What is the equation for Image size?
Magnification (M) x Actual size (A)
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What is the equation for Actual size?
Image size (I) /Magnification (M)
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What is the golgi apparatus?
Modified proteins are packed Into vesicles.
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What is the rough ER?
Proteins are synthesised and transported and ribosomes are attached.
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What is the smooth ER?
t is responsible for synthesis and transport of lipids and carbohydrates.
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What are lysosomes?
They are vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes. They break down waste materials inside the cells.
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Name three things found in a plant cell that is not present in an animal cell?
Chloroplasts, cell wall and vacuole
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What is a palisade mesophyll cell?
They are cells that contain chloroplasts and are found in leaves. The chloroplasts can absorb a large amount of light for photosynthesis. Palisade cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane
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What are root hair cells?
It is a root because it has no chloroplast. They increase the surface area of the cell to maximise absorption of water and minerals. It has low concentration of ions outside and high oncentration of ions inside.
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What are sperm cells?
They are male gametes and have 23 chromosomes. They have a tail structure called a undulipodium to help them move
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What is an acrosome?
It is the head of a sperm cell which contains digestive systems. The enzymes are released when the sperm meets the egg.
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What is gram staining?
It is used to identify types of infectious bacteria and the treatment differs based on the outcome
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What does "turgor" mean?
It is when the cell is rigid due to the pressure of the contents on the cell wall.
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What are egg cells?
The female gametes in animals. It is one of the largest cells in the human body.
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What is haemoglobin?
It is the protein molecule in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the other parts of the body, and carbon dioxide to the lungs.
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What shape are red blood cells and why?
They are biconcave. This is to increase the surface area to volume ratio of a red blood cell.
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What are the 4 main types of tissue in animals?
Epithelium, muscle, connective and nervous.
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There are 3 types of epithelium tissue, what are they?
Squamous, columnar and endothelium.
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What is squamous epithelial tissue?
It is a lining tissue that is one cell thick. It is made from specialised squamous epithelial cells.
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Lungs can become damaged from smoking causing...
...breathlessness, persistent coughing and phlegm.
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What is columnar epithelial tissue?
It is made up of column-shaped ciliated cells with cilia covering the exposed surfaces. Ciliated epithelium lines the trachea to protect the lungs from infection.
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Name 3 types of muscle tissue.
Cardiac, smooth and skeletal.
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Explain what skeletal tissue does.
It is found attached to the bones. You can control its contraction and relaxation. It sometimes contracts in response to reflexes.
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Explain what cardiac tissue does.
It is found only in the heart. It contracts at a steady rate to make the heartbeat and it's not under voluntary control.
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Explain what the smooth tissue does.
It is found in the walls of hollow organs such as, the stomach and bladder. It's not under voluntary control.
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What is sarcolemma?
A cell membrane of a striated muscle cell.
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What is myofibril?
A basic rod-shaped unit of muscle cell.
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What do myofibril fibres do?
They are made from proteins called myofilaments and they enable contractions to take place because of the contractile nature of the proteins in the filament.
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Which 2 protein filaments are found in muscle cells?
Actin and myosin. During muscle contraction, thin actin filaments move and overlap thick myosin filaments.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a prokaryote?

Back

A bacterial cell. It is a single- celled organism and has simple structures, it doesn't have a nucleus.

Card 3

Front

What is a eukaryote?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an electron microscope?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name 4 points of light microscopes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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samiaisha

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helped me test myself in 5 mins!!

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