BTEC Unit 1 Chemistry



Define electron configuration:

It can be defined as the distrubution of electrons in an atom or molecule.

Ionic Bonding:

This occurs when an atom of an element loses one or more electrons and donates it to another atom of a different element. The atom that loses electrons become postively charged and the atoms that gains electrons becomes negatively charged due to the imbalance of protons and electrons.

To make a more simplified defintion, it is an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.

Define electrostatic attraction:

It is the force that has been experienced by oppositely charged particles which holds the particles strongly.

Define giant ionic lattice:

It is shown as the regular arrangement of positive ions and negative ions.

Covalent Bonding:

This occurs between atoms of two non - metals where it forms when an electron is shared between the atoms. These electrons come from the top energy level of the atoms.

To make a more simplified defintion it is called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

Define lone pair:

It is defined as a non - binding pair of electrons.

Define organic compound:

It is shown as a compound that contains one or more carbons in a carbon chain.

Metal Properties:

- High melting points

- Malleable: It can be hammered into shape without breaking.

- Ductile: It can be hammered thin or stretched into wires without breaking.

- Electrical/Thermal conductors

- Solids at room temperature

Metallic Bonding:

Metallic bonding is caused because electrons in the highest energy level of the metal atom has the ability in order to become delocalised and this demonstrates that they free to move around through the metal under a 'sea' of electrons which gives the metal nuclei a postive charge which is attracted to the negative charge on the delocalised electrons allowing it to have a strong force of attraction.

Metallic bonding is not as strong in covalent or ionic bonding.

Define delocalised: 

These are electrons that are free to move and are present in metals which are not associated with single atoms or covalent bonding. They also absorb heat energy which gives them kinetic energy which can be transferred through the metal by these electrons.

Non - polar molecule:This is shown as a molecule where the electrons have been distrubuted evenly throughout the molecule.

Polar molecule: This is shown as a molecule with a partial postive charge in one part of the molecule and similar negative charge in another part due to an uneven electron distrubution.

Intermolecular forces:

These are