Brazil, an EDC, case study

GDP per capita
$5823 in 2014 (from $4874 in 2007)
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Current patterns of migration
Net migration loss of a million between 2000-09 but this slowed to 190,000 between 2010-14
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Migration between neighbouring countries
Mercosur members, Chile and the Andean states
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How many highly skilled workers in USA?
370,000 in 2013
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How many highly skilled workers in Japan
50,000 in 2013
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International labour migrants
Attracted by the construction industry for the 2014 football world cup and the 2016 Olympics
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Internal migration
northeast to cities of the southeast
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Agricultural sector
During the late nineteenth and twentieth century, Brazil was a net recipient of European migrants (particularly Italians, Germans and Portuguese) attracted to agricultural sector, especially coffee cultivation.
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Japanese migrants
Drawn towards agriculture and industry
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Economic migration
between Paraguay and Argentina
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Political crisis
led to migration from Bolivia, Angola and Lebanon
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Portugal
Long-standing relationships as former colony of Portugal. Portuguese government still gives special status to Brazilian migrants. Portugal is a gateway for entry to the EU. Shared language, ancestry and family ties
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USA
Many thousands of low-skilled economic migrants working in the USA are able to remit significant monies. Returning migrants contribute skills and knowledge to Brazil's development. Strong links in education and teacher training.
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How has the USA supported Brazil?
USAID gives support in environmental projects - training indigenous people to protect their tribal lands from forest fire and assisting Brazilian government in designing and implementing laws concerning forest governance and forest management
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Haiti
The National Immigration Council for Brazil enables Haitian immigrants to obtain visas relatively easily in Haiti, reducing vulnerability to trafficking - benefits Haitains who struggled to recover from 2010 earthquake and hurricane Sandy in 2012.
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Impact of migration on economic development
Immigration from Japan and European countries has contributed to growth in agriculture and manufacturing. Highly skilled professionals reduce gaps in labour market. Migrant remittances - $2.4 billion (0.1% of GDP) in 2014
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Impact of migration on political stability
Membership of Mercosur (trading block with free flow of trade, capital and labour migration) helped political stability. Stable political relationships between Brazil and USA, Japan and Portugal. Provides visas and work permits for refugees.
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Impact of migration on social equality
UNESCO - there are inequalities in Brazilian society between different ethnic groups - housing provision, access to services, education and income. Poverty concentrated in rural areas or favelas where the poor migrate. Prejudice in labour market
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Current patterns of migration

Back

Net migration loss of a million between 2000-09 but this slowed to 190,000 between 2010-14

Card 3

Front

Migration between neighbouring countries

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many highly skilled workers in USA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many highly skilled workers in Japan

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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