Max Reid


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Key Terms

  • Asylum: seeking safety from persecution
  • immigration: movement of people into a place 
  • Emmigration: movement of people out of a place 
  • VISA: the right to travel to certain places for a certain amount of time 
  • Refugee: fleeing own home due to conflict or prosecution with no return 
  • Naturalised: admir s foreigner to citizenship to a country 
  • Remittances: tanfer of money to a from a worker bank to their home country 
  • HDI: standard measure od human development, includes: life expectancy, mean years of schooling expected years of schooling, GNP per capita 
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reasons for migration

  1. Safety: Persecution (religion, race, politics) crime, economics stability, diseases, epidemics, disasters - Infrastructure: public services, economic stability, safety, location, welfare state, education

  2. Environmental: flooding, crop failure, drought, desertification, famine

  3. Political: war, poverty, social inequalities, political and religious persecution, dictatorships, corruption

  4. Collective behaviour: following nomadic and ethnic groups or travellers

  5. Personal aspiration: American dream, employment opportunities, TNC promotions

  6. Familial ties: Spouses or significant others, family

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Inter-regional Migration flows (one region to anot

  • instability in Africa, led to migration to European countrys. In 2014, there were 3,29 registered deaths from crossing
  • Large numbers of migrants also cross from Turkey to Greese. The number of crossings here rapidly increased in 2015, due to the Syrian crisis and Turkish uprisings, which caused a major issue of border control and capsize rescue for the EU border managerment team and the UN refugee agency, as well as the many NGOs involved with migrant welfare.
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Intra-reigional migrant flows (within a region)

  • Significant movement between the EU member states and between mny non-EU countries and the EU, in 2012, 1.7 million EU residents migrated to another EU country and another 1.7 mill people moved from an EU country to a non-EU country, also 2.7 million residents migrated to a non EU state net EU migration in total -1mill poeple in 2012
  • Schegen Agreement: allows freedom of movement within most EU countries 
  • EU expansion: has increased the potential number of migrants:

2004: Czech Republic, Latvia, Poland, Cyprus, Hungary

2007: Romania and Bulgaria 

2013: Croatia 

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Case study: Poland to UK

From 2004 onward there has been a new wave of Polish people to the UK. 

They were attracted to greater employment opportunities, higher wages better living standards and the ease of return to Poland  (which most intend to do after 2-3 years of ebing within the UK)

in 2013, there were arounf 660,000 poles living in the UK and 40K UK migrants within Poland 

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Cost and Benefit of Migration

  • Stability 
  • Economic frowth 
  • Inequaltues 
  • Conflict
  • Injustice 

Other things in this topic

  • South-South and South to North corridors and the causes 
  • Young and Female migrants 
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Young migrants

  • Mostly economic, due to greater employment opportunities, higher wages and remittance possibilities 
  • Demand for young workers in oil producing countries, Saudi Arabia, there are 2.85 million migrants who were born in India, 1 million each from Bangladesh and Pakistan, predominantly low skilled young males 
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Female Migrants

  • Increase in the number of female migrants in the 21st century. as of 2013, 52% of all migrants in developed countries were women and 46% developing countries 
  • increase in highly skilled women migrating. Women from India, Africa and Latin America head to Canada, the USA, the UK  and Isreal. They often are looking for a country with less discrimination wihtin labour and better women rights 
  • 60.8% of migrants in Latvia are women, 13.4% Bangladesh 
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  • Host Country: where there is an ageing population, youthful migrant working populations contribute to a more balenced age structure and population growth (Germany) 
  • Origin country: migrant remmittances contribute to economic stability of thr recipeitant country of origin. Returning migrants, having acquired new ideas and value (like democracy/equality), can contribute to peace-building and conflict resolution 
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Economic growth

  • Host country: the GDP and tax income of the host nation can be boosted by working migrants, can stimulate local economies in a host country, even creating new markets in demand for food/clothing/music. MIgrants can fill skill gaos and shortages in labour markets of a host country 
  • Origin country: remittances can supplement household income, therefore stimulate consumption/investment in their country of origin. This contributes to the multiplyer effect
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  • Countries of origin lose a proportion of the youngest and fittest section of the labour force. this may contribute to a dowward economic spiral 
  • Often it is the better educated that migrate 'brain drain', as the country of origin loses its smartest people and skilled workers
  • The demographic selectiveness of international migration can cause redistribution  of the population and of reproductive age, affects birth rates 
  • Migrant remittances can increase inequality within the country of origin
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  • social conflict can develop between host communities and migrants, intergration can be especially hard due to a language barrier 
  • immigration populations, if concentrated in one area, can put an unexpected  strain on resources such as education and healthcare in the host country 
  • international borders can become areas of conflict between border control and illegal migrants/trafficers 
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  • Migrants are vulnerable to violation of their human rights due to: forced labour, exploitation  of women/children, human trafficking 
  • Treatment of asylum seekers can include being held in detention centres, not being allowed to work, and being supported with very little financial resources to fund the basic necessities 
  • Might be dangerous for them to return home due to political' ideological conflict 
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South-South and South-North Corridors

  • Until the 2010s, the largest international migration flows had been from South-North due to the migration of flowing from poor and less developed countries to wealthier, more developed countries 
  • From 2013, largest flows were South-South. as global economics have becmoe more interconnected, South-South have increased significantly 
  • South-South (82.3m=36%) South-North (81.9m=35%)
  • 2/3rds of all migrant remittance transfers were South-South 
  • Increase in refugees fleeing persecution or conflict, like the 2.3 M who have migrated from Afganistan to Pakistan 
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Causes of South-South and South- North

  • Administrative barriers restrict migrants going from South-North 
  • Fast-growing economies in the South, which offer employment opportunities and are increasingly accessible
  • Increased awareness of opportunities in the South, resulting from improved communications and developing social and business networks 
  • There are large precentative costs of moving to more distant, richer countries in the North 
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USA Migration (AC)

  • 3.140 KM border, spans four US states and six Mexican states 
  • US immigration Act of 1921 set a quota for European immigrants, America farming lobby blocked a quota for Mexicans, to protect its source of cheap labour 
  • 1.53m detained at border in 2000 by 2006 the number of illegal immigrants in the US rose from 4 to 12 million, 50% mexican 
  • in 2006 US border Patrol increased by 50`5 and planned high security fencing, cost $12 billion a year 
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USA Push and Pull Factors


  • High crime rates: homicide rates 21.5 per 100,000 people 
  • 29K killed in 2018 due to drug war, 15% annual increases 
  • 2000, unemployment rates in Mexico were 2.2% in 2009, they rose by 34.43%, leaving them standing at 5.37% in 2010


  • 11th richest country in the world, Mexico 10th highest poverty 
  • Existing migrant comminities in Texas and California, makes it easier for people to setle
  • 86.1% of the Mexican population can read & write versus 99% of population in america 
  • Average years od education is 14 in Mexico vs 16 in America 
  • Average income $57k in USA $5k in Mexico 
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Impacts of Migration in USA


  • assimilation of Mecicans into American communities problematic as many Mexicans cant speak fluent English, this is okay due to Mexican immigrant communities 
  • Tension between migrants and locals lead to segregation, crim and violance 
  • improved cultural diversity due to Mexican immigrants 
  • reduced birth rate in Mexico is also increasing the dependency ratio 


  • Migrants workers undercutting wages leading to increased poverty in America, many companies also are replacing american workers for immigrants due to cheaper labour 
  • $33 Billion sent annually through remmittances 
  • Brain Drain in Mexico 
  • EB-3 visa in USA allows for skilled workers, 600 patients per doctor 
  • Mexican immigrants in USA: 31% servicies, 25% manufacturing, 22% transport and production 
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Brazil EDC

  • population of 208 million, Capital is Brasillia (2.5m) 
  • Ethnicity 48% white, 43% mixed races, 7% black, 64% catholic 8% no religion 
  • HDI: 0.754 (2015) 79th globally 
  • GDP of 1.8 trillion (dollar) (2016) 9th in the world 
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Brazil Current Immigration and Emigration Patterns


  • Net migration loss of 500k between 2005-2009 and 190,000 in 2010-14
  • Increased migration between Brazil and its neighnouring countries especially Southern Common Market (Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina) as well as Chile, Colombia, Venezuala and Equador 
  • High skilled workers are moving to EU, USA and JApan 
  • influx of Migrants from Haiti and Africa, rise in the number of international labour migrants especially due to the demand for construction workers before the 2014 World Cup 
  • Net migration rate of -0.1/1000 in 2017 

Changes over time 

  • 20th century: Brazil was net recipient of migrants due to Europeans being attracted to work in agriculture 
  • political crises have also caused mass migration from Bolivia ect 
  • Modern Day: immigration has slowed 80k less immigrants in 2015 
  • emigration has increased within 1.77 m Brazilians living abroad as of 2013
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Economic, Political, social interdependence with c

  • Portugal: Brazil was a Poruguese colony, Economic migrants can use Portugal as a gateway to the EU and higher paying jobs in the EU can mean migrant remittances can be sent back to Brazil. Shared language and ancestery as well as family ties can make migration easy 
  • USA: low-skilled economic migrants from Brazil to the USA and send back remittances. any returning migrants also bring back new skills and cultural knowledge. High skilled Braxillians are also finding opportunities to work in the US 
  • Haiti: the National Immigration Council for Brazil enables Haitian immigrants to obtain visas relatively easily, 1.5 millian Haitians displaced by the 2010 earthquake, over 10,000 moved to Brazil between 2010-13
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Impacts on Brazil

  • $2.4 Billion in remittancers sent to Braxil in 2014
  • Highly skilled labourers have improved productivity and entereneuship
  • GDP per capita increased from $4,800 in 2007 to 8,700 today 
  • 370,000 skilled Brazillian workers in USA, 50,000 in Japan 
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Laos (LIDC)

  • population of 7 mill, life expectancy 66
  • GDP per capita $1.8k with 22% of the population under the pverty line ( less than $1.90 a day)
  • 22% of familes live bellow the poverty line 
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Laos push factors to Thailand

  • mostly subsistence farming so little financial gain or personal independance, lack of alternative occupations
  • insufficient land available for farming and periodic floods and droughts which lead to food insecurity 
  • strong motivation to follow others who have returned from financially successful migrations (social norms) 
  • daily minimum wage in Thailand is 300 baht compared to 80 baht in Laos, average Laos workers in Thailand is approximately 6800 baht 
  • low level education in Laos means that many are suited only to unskilled jobs, there is large demand for unskilled labour in Thailand's rapidly growinf economy 
  • Thailand is SE Asia's second largest economy
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Reasons and problems for Migration from Laos to Th


  • Familiarity with Thail culture and language
  • a system of border passes which allows simple entry into Thailand gor short periods, people can also move easily across with no record 
  • improved access across the Mekong river 
  • use of 'brokers' to reach the Thai border and access employment in Thailand 


  • Laos is a source country for human trafficing 
  • in 2013, 36% of the population were under 15, leading to an increasinf number od entrants into the work force in a country where oppitunity is limited 
  • the vulnerablilty of young migrants to forced labour and sex exploitation in Thailand 
  • low skilled labour, limited education, disease risk 
  • loss pf skilled labour such as carpenters and mechanics to Thailand do to wage differences 
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Benifits of Migration from Laos

  • Stimulate political and economic co-operation such as trade, investment, development projects and security
  • political stability is improving between Laos, Thailand and Vietnam 
  • Mekong River Commission to manages flooding and economic activites in the basin and the Don Sahong hydro-power project
  • Laos signed agreements to build rail links between Thailand and Vietnam in 2002, with which it also has special relations, including a high speed rail link to China 
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