Biopsychology general questions

  • Created by: Georgia56
  • Created on: 30-04-18 08:38

1. The PNS transmits messages, via neurons, to and from the CNS. It is further subdivided into the:

  • Glands (organs in the body that synthesis hormones) and muscles (another type of effector that causes movement within the body).
  • Autonomic nervous system (governs vital functions in the body such as BR and HR) and Somatic nervous system (controls muscle movement and receives information from sensory receptors).
  • The central nervous system (composed of the brain and spinal cord) and the endocrine system (one of the body's major information systems that instructs glands to release hormones directly into the bloodstream that are carried towards target organs).
  • Parasympathetic nervous system (the fight or flight response, involves increased HR and BR), parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest response, return the body to normal resting state, decreased BR and HR)
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2. The ANS triggers physiological changes in the body which creates the physiological arousal necessary for the fight or flight response. Which one is correct?

  • Heart rate increases, breathing rate increases, dilates pupils, inhibits digestion, inhibits saliva production and contracts rectum
  • Heart rate increases, breathing rate increases, constricts pupils, inhibits digestion, inhibits saliva production and contracts rectum
  • Heart rate increases, breathing rate increases, constricts pupils, inhibits digestion, inhibits saliva production and relaxes rectum
  • Heart rate increases, breathing rate increases, dilates pupils, inhibits digestion, inhibits saliva production and relaxes rectum

3. What is the function of the peripheral nervous system?

  • Sends information to the central nervous system from the outside world, and transmits messages from the CNS to muscles and glands in the body.
  • Sends information to the endocrine glands were they are converted into chemical signals to carry out a response.
  • Send information to neurons in the muscles and co-ordinates a response by converting electrical transmission into chemical information.
  • Co-ordinates with the functioning of the body leading to the fight or flight response activation and the the rest and digest once the nervous system has been activated the rest and digest response comes into play, leaving the body at a resting state.

4. Maguire et al found...

  • Revealed that functional recovery can occur. Studied Sarah Scott and improvements in her speech production over time as her brain from new neural pathways and activated secondary pathways.
  • Studied medical studies 3 months before their final exams as well as during and after. Found changes in prain volvum in posterior hippocampus and parietal cortex, presumably as result of exams taken.
  • London taxi drivers had significantly more volume of grey matter in the posterior hippocampus than in matched group control. Positive correlation with length of time as taxi driver and size of hippocampus.
  • Found larger parietal cortex in brains of people who were bilingual compared to matched monolingual controls.

5. What did Herasty discover?

  • Found that removing areas of rats brains little differences in functionality, showing localisation is not as strong as suggested. Supporting holistic explanation of brain functioning.
  • Found women have larger Broca's and Wernicke's area than man, may explain their ease of language.
  • Studied the case of Patient Tan. Autopsy revealed there was a lesion on the area of the brain associated with speech production.
  • Found some individuals had more localised brains than others, particularly in their left prefrontal cortex.

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