BIOPSYCHOLOGY

  • Created by: f00233
  • Created on: 26-05-18 15:03
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  • BiopsychologyAS
    • CNS
      • the brain
        • cerebrum
          • Largest part. Divided into 4 lobes. Split down the middle=hemispheres; the 2 halves communicate through the corpus callosm
        • cerebellum
          • Controls motor skills and balance
        • diencephalon
          • thalamus
            • Acts as a relay station for nerve impulses from the senses
          • hypothalamus
            • Regulation of body temp, hunger and thirst.
        • brain stem
          • Regulates automatic functions essential for life
      • spinal cord
        • Relays information between the brain and rest of the body
        • Connected to different parts of the body by pairs of spinal nerves
        • Contains circuits of nerve cells=reflex actions
      • Responsible for processing and coordinating sensory data.  Controls behaviour and regulates the physiological processes
    • PNS
      • somatic
        • Made up of 12 pairs of cranial nerves+31 pairs of spinal nerves. these nerves have both sensory and motor neurons. involved in reflex actions without the CNS
      • autonomic
        • sympathetic
          • Involved in responses to help deal with emergencies.Neurons go to every organ and gland to prepare for rapid action.
        • para-sympathetic
          • Relaxes the body after the emergency.
        • involuntary actions and is self-regulating
    • neurons
      • sensory
        • Carry nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. covert the info from the receptors into neural impulses.
      • motor
        • form synapses with muscles and control contractions. when stimulated it releases neurotransmitters which bind to receptors triggering a motor response.
      • relay
        • allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate.Found only in brain or spinal cord
    • synaptic transmission
      • gap between pre and post synaptic neuron = synapse
      • the released neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap (exocytosis) where it binds to specialised receptors; once active the receptors produce an excitatory or inhibitory effect.
    • Inhibitory or Exitatory
      • E= nervous systems on switches. Increases the chance of an excitatory signal is sent to postsynaptic cells... more likely to fire.
        • examples.. noradrenaline,acetylcholine, glutamate
      • I= nervous systems off switches. they decrease the likelihood a neuron will fire. Responsible for calming the mind and body
        • examples... glycine, serotonin, GABA
      • EPSP= excitatory post synaptic potential,post synaptic cell is more likely to fire.    IPSP= inhibitory post synaptic potential, less likely to fire.
        • the likelihood of it firing is determined by adding up excitatory and inhibitory input= SUMMATIVE
          • spatial
            • a large number of EPSP's are generated through different synapses onto the same postsynaptic neuron
          • temporal
            • a large number of EPSP's are generated at the same synapse by a series of high frequency action potential on presynaptic neuron
    • the endocrine system
      • network of glands that produce and secrete hormones
      • works closely with NS to regulate physiological processes.
        • movement, respiration, growth, digestion
      • hormones= chemical messengers that travel through bloodstream, influencing many processes,
      • pituitary gland "master"= connected to hypoT.           2 main regions, anterior lobe (controlled by releasing hormones from the hypoT. hormones= ACTH and growth). posterior lobes (controlled by nerve stimulation, hormones= oxytocin)
      • adrenal glands, outer is adrenal cortex(cortisol which regulates bodily functions, increased when stressed + aldosterone, maintaining blood pressure) inside is medulla (adrenaline + noradrenaline, for emergencies)
      • ovaries (oestrogen, progesterone)testes (testosterone)
    • the fight or flight response
      • the amygdala sends a distress signal to the hypoT that sends signals to the rest of the body through SNS
      • acute stressors-the SNS is triggered and prepares the body. adrenaline is released, increasing oxygen intake and energy.
      • chronic stressor- if something is perceived to be threatening, second system is kicked in.
        • pituitary gland, CRH causes the gland to release ACTH
        • adrenal glands, ACTH stimulates this to release stress related hormones,
        • hypothalamusthat releases CRH
      • EVALUATION
        • Taylor et al(2000)-females tend and befriend
        • negative consequence response, cortisol= suppresses immune system, high blood pressure causes damage to vessels
        • Gray(1988), first response is to avoid confrontation or freeze.
        • Lee and Harley(2012) found genetic difference, SRY gene in men leads to aggression.
        • Van Dawans et al(2012). found both genders lead to cooperation and friendly behaviour.

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