Biology UNIT 1B

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How does having a large surface area compared to volume help desert animals in their environment?
They lose more body heat
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How does being efficient with water help desert animals in their environment
They lose less water by producing small amounts of concentrated urine. They make very little sweat
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What is a desert animal's coat like?
They have thin layers of body fat and a thin coat to help them lose body heat
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Why do desert animals camouflage?
-To avoid predators -To sneak up on prey
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How does having a small surface area compared to volume help Arctic animals in their environment?
It reduces heat loss
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How are arctic animals well insulated?
-They have a thick layer of blubber -Thick hairy coats and greasy fur
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How do arctic animals camouflage?
They have white fur to help them avoid predators and sneak up on preys
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How have desert plants adapted to their environment?
-Small surface area compared to volume meaning less water is lost -Water storage tissues -Maximising water absorption: Have roots to absorb water
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How are plants adapted to deter predators?
-Have armour e.g. roses have thorns -Produce poisons
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How are animals adapted to deter predators?
-Have armour e.g. tortoises have shells -Produce poisons e.g snakes and bees -Have warning colours e.g. wasps
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What resources do plants need to survive?
-Light -Water -Space -Minerals
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What resources do animals need to survive?
-Space (territory) -Food -Water -Mates
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What living factors might change the environment in which animals and plants live in?
-Change in infectious diseases -Change in the number of predators -Change in number of prey/availability of food sources -Change in number/types of competitors
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What non-living factors might change the environment in which animals and plants live in?
-Change in average temperature -Change in average rainfall -Change in level of air or water pollution
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How can you measure air pollution?
By looking at types of lichen that are sensitive to sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. If the air is clean, there are lots of lichen
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How can you measure the temperature of the sea surface, amount of snow and ice cover?
Using satellites
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What does each bar on a pyramid of biomass show?
The mass of living material
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What are the stages of drug testing?
-
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Explain what happens in the carbon cycle
-
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What are the two types of variation?
-Genetic variation -Environmental variation
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What are genes?
Codes inside your cells that control how you're made
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What is genetic variation?
When some genes are from the mother and some from the father are combined. No two of the species are genetically identical
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What is environmental variation?
When the environment that organisms live and grow in cause differences between members of the same species
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What does the human nucleus cell contain?
Genetic material in the form of chromosomes. There are 23 chromosomes
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What is sexual reproduction?
It is the fusion of male and female gametes. Because there are two parents, the offspring contains a mixture of their parents' genes
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What is asexual reproduction?
When an ordinary cell makes a new cell by dividing in two. It has the same genetic information and is a clone
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How can plants be cloned?
From cutting and tissue culture
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How does adult cell cloning work?
-
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What are the advantages of cloning?
-Can have a greater understanding of the development of the embryo, and of ageing and age-related diseases -Preserve endangered species
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What are the disadvantages of cloning?
-If a population is closely related, a new disease could wipe them out if there is no allele to give them resistance -Cloning could cause the animal to have problems and not be as healthy as the normal one
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Who came up with the idea of natural selection?
Charles Darwin
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What is natural selection?
When individuals show variation because of the differences in their genes and make them better adapted to their environment
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What is mutation?
A change in an organism's DNA
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Why did not many people agree with Charles Darwin's idea?
-Went against common religious beliefs -Darwin couldn't give a good explanation as he didn't know anything about genes or mutations -Wasn't enough evidence
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What did Lamarck believe about evolution?
He believed that if a characteristic was used a lot by an organism then it would become more developed during its lifetime and be passed on to the next generation
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Why was Lamarck's idea rejected?
Because experiments didn't support it
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Card 2

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How does being efficient with water help desert animals in their environment

Back

They lose less water by producing small amounts of concentrated urine. They make very little sweat

Card 3

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What is a desert animal's coat like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do desert animals camouflage?

Back

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Card 5

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How does having a small surface area compared to volume help Arctic animals in their environment?

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