Biology SL chapter 2.2 (Prokaryotic Cells)

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What is a prokaryotic cell?
Smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells.
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Structures of a prokaryotic cell
1.Cell wall, 2. cell membrane, 3. capsule, 4. cytoplasm, 5. Nucleoid, 6. Plasmid 7. Ribosome 8. Flagella, 9. Pili
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Cell wall
A rigid outer layer made of peptidoglycan that maintains shape and protects the cell from damage or bursting if internal pressure is high
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Cell membrane
Semi-permeable barrier that controls the entry and exit of substances
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Capsule
A thick polysaccharide layer used for protection against dessication (drying out) and phagocytosis
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Cytoplasm
Fluid component which contains the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions
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Nucleoid
Region of the cytoplasm which contains the genophore (the prokaryotic DNA)
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Plasmid
Additional DNA molecule that can exist and replicate independently of the genophore - it can be transmitted between bacterial species
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Ribosome
Complexes of RNA and protein that are responsible for polypeptide synthesis (prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotes - 70S)
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Flagella
Long, slender projection containing a motor protein which spins the flagella like a propellor, enabling movement
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Pili
Hair-like extensions found on bacteria which can serve one of two roles
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Binary fission
A way for prokaryotic cells to divide. The DNA is copied, the DNA loops then attach to the membrane, the cell elongates with one loop in each half and divides (cytokinesis)
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Card 2

Front

Structures of a prokaryotic cell

Back

1.Cell wall, 2. cell membrane, 3. capsule, 4. cytoplasm, 5. Nucleoid, 6. Plasmid 7. Ribosome 8. Flagella, 9. Pili

Card 3

Front

Cell wall

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cell membrane

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Capsule

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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