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2.1: Cell Theory
2.1.1 Outline the Cell Theory:
Three main principles:
Living organisms are composed of cells
Cells are the smallest unit of life
Cells come from preexisting cells

2.1.2 discuss the evidence for the Cell Theory:

First Principle
Robert Hook:
First discovered cells 1665
Observing cork with a microscope…

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Growth: limited but is always evident
Reproduction: involves hereditary molecules that can be passed to offspring
Response: to the environment is imperative to the survival of the organism
Homeostasis: maintaining a constant internal environment e.g. acidbase
Nutrition: providing a source of compounds with many chemical bonds which can

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Volume: Affects functions of rate of heat and waste production and rate of
resource consumption. It affects the rate of chemical reactions to occur in the interior
of the cell
Surface Area: Controls what materials move in and out of the cells. Affects the
amount of materials able to move…

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2.1.10 Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells
Bone Marrow Transplants: Treat people with certain cancers
Stem cells found in bone marrow give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells
and platelets in the body
High doses of chemotherapy kills the cancer cells but also the normal cells in…

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7. Cell wall: Forms a protective outer layer that prevents damage from outside and
also bursting if internal pressure is high.

2.2.3 identify structures from 2.2.1 in electron micrographs of E.coli

2.2.4 State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission
Binary Fission: During this process, the DNA is copied, the…

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2. Mitochondrion: Carries out aerobic respiration
3. Golgi apparatus: Processes proteins before secretion
4. Plasma Membrane: Controls energy and exit of substances
5. Free ribisosmes: Synthesise protein for the use in cytoplasm
6. Lysosome: Stores digestive enzymes
7. Nucleus: Stores the genetic material
8. Central Vacuole: Storage and hydrolic functions…

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Both have some sort of outside boundary that always involves a plasma
Both carry out all the functions of life
DNA is present in both

2.3.5 State three differences between plant and animal cells

Feature Animal Plant
Cell Wall No cell wall, only a plasma Cell wall and plasma…

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2.4.2 Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help
maintain the structure of cell membranes
Phospholipids are both water soluble and not water soluble as they are
composed of a 3carbon compound, Glycerol. The two fatty acids are not
water soluble however the alcohol with phosphate is highly…

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2.4.5 Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and
facilitated diffusion
Simple diffusion is when substances move between the phospholipids
molecules in the membranes
Facilitated diffusion is when substances are unable to pass between the
phospholipids and to allow these substances to diffuse through membranes
channel proteins are needed.…

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3. Vesicles bud off from the Golgi
apparatus and carry the modified
proteins to the plasma membrane
Endocytosis 1. Part of the plasma membrane is pulled
2. A droplet of fluid becomes enclosed
when a vesicle is pinched off
3. Vesicles can then move through the
cytoplasm carrying their…


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