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2.1.1 Outline the cell theory (2).

Outline: To give a brief account or summary.

All living things are made of cells.
Cells are the smallest unit of life.
Existing cells have come from other cells.
Stated in this way Cell Theory might be attributed to Schleiden and Schwann…

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Organelles up to 10 µm

Most cells up to 100 µm (three dimensional nature/shape)

2.1.5 Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of known

Magnification = measured size of object/ actual size of object
2.1.6 Explain the importance of the surface area…

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2.2.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an example of
a prokaryote

Note the absence of membrane bound organelles
There is no true nucleus with a nuclear membrane
The ribosome's are smaller than eukaryotic cells
The slime capsule is…

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The process starts with DNA replication, then separation of the two circular strands to either side of
the cell. Then cytokenesis occurs: division into two.

Each new cell has about half of the cytoplasm.

Growth restores the original size.


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2.3.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal

PM: plasma membrane
M: mitochondria
rER: Rough endoplasmic reticulum
GA: Golgi apparatus
L: Lysosome
MV: Microvilli
FR: Free ribosomes

2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with…

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2.3.5 State three differences between plant and animal cells

No cell wall, just a plasma membrane Cell wall and plasma membrane present
No chloroplasts present Chloroplasts present in photosynthesizing cells
Vacuole not usually present Large fluid filled vacuole often present
Able to change shape, usually rounded Fixed shape.…

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2.4.1 Draw and label a diagram to show the
structure of membranes.

2.4.2 Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic
properties of phospholipids help to maintain the
structure of cell membranes.
The 'head's have large phosphate groups, thus they are hydrophilic (attract water) or polar. These
section are suited…

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2.4.4 Define diffusion and osmosis.

Diffusion: is the passive movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower
concentration, as a result of the random motion of particles.
Osmosis: the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from
a region of lower…

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In exocytosis vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane. The contents of the vesicles are then expelled.
The membrane flattens out again.
2.5.1 Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2, mitosis and cytokinesis)
G1 period of growth, DNA transcription and protein synthesis
S period during which…

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2.5.6 State that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.

Growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.





This is amazing! Is it for exams 2013?

Luisa Heyerdahl


You're a life saver!



Incredible resource THANK YOU!!

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