Biology Definitions

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  • Created by: Olivia
  • Created on: 03-04-15 17:04
Nutrition
Taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them
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Photosynthesis
The fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light
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Limiting Factor
Something present in the environment in such short supply that it restricts life processes
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State the word equation and balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide + Water => Oxygen + Glucose 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O => 6O(2) + C(6)H(12)O(6)
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Balanced Diet
A diet consisting of the adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients recommended for a healthy growth and for efficient daily activities and functions
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Ingestion
Taking substances (e.g. food and drink) into the body through the mouth
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Egestion
Passing out of food that has not been digested, as faeces, through the ****
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Digestion
The break down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes
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Absorption
Movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood or lymph
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Assimilation
Movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells
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Deamination
Removal of the nitrogen-containing part of amino acids to form urea, followed by release of energy from the remainder of the amino acid
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Transpiration
Evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapour from plant leaves, through the stomata
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Translocation
The movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem, from regions of production to regions of storage OR to regions of utilisation in respiration or growth
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Circulatory System
A system of tubes with a pump (the heart) and valves to ensure one way flow of blood
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Respiration
The chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release respiration
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Aerobic Respiration
The release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen
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State the word equation and balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration
Oxygen + Glucose => Carbon Dioxide + Water 6O(2) + C(6)H(12)O(6) => 6H(2)O + 6CO(2)
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Anaerobic Respiration
The release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen
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State the word equation and balanced symbol equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles
Glucose => Lactic Acid C(6)H(12)O(6) => 2C(3)H(6)O(3)
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State the word equation and balanced symbol equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast
Glucose => Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide C(6)H(12)O(6) => 2C(2)H(5)OH + 2CO(2)
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Excretion
The removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements. e.g. carbon dioxide, urea and salts
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Reflex Action
A means of automatically and rapidly integrating and coordinating stimuli with responses
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Sensory Organ
A group of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli e.g. light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals
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Hormone
A chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver
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Geotropism
A response in which a plant grows towards or away from gravity
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Phototropism
A response in which a plant grows towards or way from the direction from which light is coming
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Homeostasis
The maintenance of a constant internal environment
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Drug
Any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body
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Asexual Reproduction
The process resulting in the production of gentically identical offspring from one parent
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Sexual Reproduction
The process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of gentically dissimilar offspring
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Pollination
The transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma)
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Growth
A permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell siz or both
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Development
Increase in complexity
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Inheritance
The transmission of gentic information from generation to generation
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Chromosome
A thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes
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Gene
A length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generaition
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Allele
Any of two or more alternative forms of a gene
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Haploid Nucleus
A nucleus containing a single set of chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg)
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Diploid Nucleus
A nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells)
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Mitosis
Nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exact duplication of chromosomes
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Meiosis
Reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploid to haploid
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Excretion
Removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements
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Sensitivity
The ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses
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Movement
An action by an organism or part of an organis causing a change in position or place
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Reproduction
The processes that make more of the same kind of organism
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Binomial System
A system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species
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Tissue
A group of cells with similar structures, working together to perform a shared function
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Organ
A structure made up of a group of tissues, working together to perform specific functions
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Organ System
A group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body funtions
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Diffusion
The net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement
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Active Transport
Movement of ions in or out of a cell through the cell membrane, from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration against a concentration gradient, using energy released during respiration
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Osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration (dilute solution) to a region of their lower concentration (concentrated solution), through a partially permeable membrane
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Catalyst
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction
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Enzymes
Proteins that function as biological catalysts
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Sense Organs
Groups of receptor cells responding to a specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals
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Hormone
A chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organisms and is then destroyed by the liver
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Genotype
Gentic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG)
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Phenotype
The physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment (e.g. tall plant or green seed)
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Homozygous
Having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical homozygous individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding
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Heterozygous
Having two different alleles of a particular gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure-breeding
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Dominant
An allele that is expressed if it is present (e.g. T or G)
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Recessive
An allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g. t or g)
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Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome
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Natural Selection
The greater chance of passing on of genes by the best adapted organisms
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Gentic Engineering
Taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species
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Food Chain
A chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism to the next beginning with a producer
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Food Web
A network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem
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Producer
An organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis
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Consumer
An organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms
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Herbivore
An animal that gets its energy by eating plants
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Carnivore
An animal that gets its energy by eating other animals
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Decomposer
An organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter
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Ecosystem
A unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or lake
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Trophic Level
The position of an organism in a food chain, food web or pyramid of biomass, numbers or energy
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Population
A group of organisms of one species, living in the same area at the same time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light

Back

Photosynthesis

Card 3

Front

Something present in the environment in such short supply that it restricts life processes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Carbon Dioxide + Water => Oxygen + Glucose 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O => 6O(2) + C(6)H(12)O(6)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A diet consisting of the adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients recommended for a healthy growth and for efficient daily activities and functions

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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