Biology unit 2a

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Name 5 parts animal cells have and what their functions are
1)Nucleus- controls cell activity
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cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place
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3)Cell membrane-controls passage of substances in and out of cell
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4)Mitochondria- where most energy is released in respiration
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5)Ribosomes- where protein synthesis occurs
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What do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
Cell wall, Chloroplasts, Permanent Vacuole
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What do chloroplasts do?
absorb light to make food
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What is a permanent vacuole filled with?
cell sap
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What does a bacterial cell consist of?
Cytoplasm and membrane surrounded by cell wall. Genes not in a distinct nucleus.
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Yeast is single celled true or false? and what does it contain?
True, contains nucleus, cytoplasm, and membrane surrounded by cell wall.
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How do dissolved substances move in and out of cells?
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Define diffusion
net movement of particles from area of high concentration to low concentration
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How does oxygen pass through cell membrane? and why?
needed for respiration and by diffusion
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define multicellular
having more than 1 cell
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what do multicellular organisms contain?
differentiated cells adapted for different functions
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what is Differentiation?
when cell becomes specialized e.g tissue
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What's Muscular tissue?
contracts bringing about movement
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Glandular tissue?
produces substances e.g enzymes and hormones
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Epithelial tissue?
covers some parts of the bod
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what's an organ made up of?
Several tissues e.g muscular- to churn contents, glandular- to produce digestive juices, epithelial-to cover in and out of stomach
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What does the organ system contain?
1) Glands e.g pancreas+salivary glands produce digestive juices 2)Stomach +small intestine(where digestion occurs) 3)Liver-produces bile 4)Small intestine-absorption of soluble foods 4)Large intestine-water absorbed from undigested food=poo
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What do plant organs contain?
Stem, root leaves
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What plant tissue cover the plant?
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What plant tissue carries out photosynthesis?
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What transports substances around the plant?
Xylem and Phloem
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Photosynthesis equation?
carbon dioxide + --(light)----> water glucose + oxygen
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What is found in chloroplasts and what does it do?
chlorophyll (green) absorbs light for photosynthesis
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What can photosynthesis be limited by?
shortage of light, low temp, low co2
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What could happen to glucose from photosynthesis?
converted and stored as insoluble starch
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What is glucose used for in plants?
fat/oil storage, cellulose to strengthen cell walls, produce proteins
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what does glucose also produce?
To produce proteins, plants also use nitrate ions that are absorbed from the soil.
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What are physical factors that would affect organisms?
temperature, nutrients, water, o2, andCo2 availability, amount of light
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how can you obtain quantitive data on the distribution of organisms?
random sampling with quadrants or samples along transect
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What are protein molecules made up of?
long chain amino acids
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What do proteins act as?
muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts
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what does a catalyst do?
increase the rate of chemical reactions.
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What are biological catalysts called?
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Where are digestive enzymes produced?
the glands and lining of the gut where they catalyse the breakdown of food molecules
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Where is amylase produced?
in salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
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What does amylase do?
breaks starch down into starch and in mouth and small intestine
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What protease produced by and what does it do?
Stomach pancreas and small intestine. It breaks proteins into amino acids in stomach and small intestine
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Where is lipase produced and what does it do?
In pancreas and small intestine. Catalyse the breakdown of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol in small intestine
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What conditions do enzymes work best in?
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What does the liver do?
Liver produces bile -stored in gall bladder -released in small intes.- bile neutralises acid added to food by stomach. provides alkaline=best enviro in small intes
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What do biological detergents contain?
protein/fat digesting enzymes (protease and lipase) (MOST EFFECTIVE AT LOW TEMP)
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Whats used to "pre-digest" baby foods?
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what converts starch in sugar syrup?
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How is isomerase used?
to convert glucose syrup into fructose= sweeter for slimming products
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What happens if conditions are too high for enzymes?
they denature
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What are the chemical reactions inside cells controlled by?
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What's the equation for AEROBIC respiration?
glucose+oxygen---->carbon dioxide+wate(+energy)
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where does AEROBIC respiration take place?
Mitochondria in plant and animal cells
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What will energy released in respiration be used for?
to build larger molecules from small. in animals to enable muscle contraction, in mammals+birds=to maintain steady body temp in cold surroundings
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what energy from respiration be used for in plants?
build up sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids which then build into proteins
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when you exercise heart r8 and breathing increase what changes do these make?
increase blood flow to muscles, increase the supply of sugar and oxygen, increase rate of removal of carbon dioxide
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How to muscles store glucose
as glycogen--> converted back to glucose during exercise
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In exercise what happens when u ain't getting enough oxygen for muscles?
they use anaerobic respiration
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What's anaerobic respiration?
the incomplete breakdown of glucose and produces lactic acid.
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What does anaerobic respiration result in?
an oxygen debt that has to be repaid in order to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.
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what is muscle fatigue and how does ur bod get rid of it?
build up of lactic acid in the muscles. Blood flowing through the muscles removes the lactic acid. Additional guidance
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what are chromosomes normally found in? how do they divide?
pairs and they can divide by mitosis
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What do chromosomes contain?
genetic information
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What is mitosis?
when a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form 2 identical offspring
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When does mitosis occur?
during growth or to produce replacement cells-->also for asexual repro
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compared to body cells how many do sex cells(gametes) have?
they have one set compared to the two sets in the body cells
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What cells in reproductive organs divide to make gametes?
ovaries and testes
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What is meiosis?
produces cells which have half the norm number of chromosomes
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what is the result of meiosis?
four gametes with only 1 single set of chromosomes in it
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What are stem cells?
human embryo+adult bone marrow
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What can stem cells help cure
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In sexual reproduction what happens when the gametes fuse?
one of each pair of alleles goes into offspring
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how many pairs of chromosomes does a human have?
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What's an allele?
Different forms of the same gene
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What's a phenotype?
allele that controls physical appearance e.g blue eyes
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what's a genotype?
controls your genetic traits
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What's a dominant allele?`
Only present in one chromosome and controls the characteristic
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recessive allele?
controls development if no dominant allele present
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Whats DNA?
double helix, -genes r a small section of dna
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What do genes code for?
a particular combination of amino acids which make up a specific protein
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Whats polydactyl?
having extra digits caused by dominant allele so can be passed on by only 1 parent
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whats cystic fibrosis?
inherited from both parents (recessive)
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What can be done to see if the offspring has a genetic disorder?
embryo screening
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how are fossils formed?
1)hard parts of animals that don't decay easily 2)if the conditions 4 decay weren't right 3)when parts of organism are replaced by other materials as they decay 4)preserved traces(footprint)
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Causes of extinction
new predators/diseases/competition, catastrophic event, geological changes, speciation
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What are new species a result of?
isolation,- two populations of same species get separated
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genetic variation
each population has a wide range of alleles that control their characteristics
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natural selection
alleles that control the characteristics which help the organism to survive are selected
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populations become so different that successful interbreeding is no longer possible.
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cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place

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