Biology Unit 2.7 - Cell Divison and Inheritance

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Who was Mendel?
Monk who studeied genetics and inheritance within peas. Mendel's work preceded the work by other scientists which linked Mendel's 'inherited factors' with chromosomes.
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What does heterozygous mean?
Two different alleles for a single trait. (Brown & Black to produce brwon hair).
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What does homozygous mean?
Identical alleles for a single trait. (Two Blonde alleles for blonde hair).
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What does phenotype mean?
An organism expressed physical traits - like size, colour or shape.
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What is a genotype?
The combination of alleles for any given trait is called the organism's genotype.
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How do body cells divide? And describe this process.
Mitosis. Copies of the genetic material are made .The cell divides once. The two new cells are genetically identical.
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Why does mitosis occur?
During growth - to produce more body cells. To produce replacement cells- when body cells are damaged. During asexual reproduction.
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What is the type of cell division in which a cell divides to form gametes?
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Describe the process of meoisis.
Copies of the genetic information are made. The cell divides twice to form four gametes. Each gamete has a single set of chromosomes, and are not identical.
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Describe the process of gametes forming at fertilisation.
When gametes join at fertilisation, a single body cell with new pairs of chromosomes is formed. A new individual then develops by this cell repeatedly dividing by mitosis.
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What cantreatment with stem cells cure?
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Why does sexual reproduction produce variation?
When gametes fuse, one of each pair of alleles comes from each parent.
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What are chromosomes made up of?
Chromosomes are made up of large molecules of DNA (deoxyribo nucleic acid) which has a double helix structure.
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What does each gene (small section DNA) code for?
For a particular combination of amino acids which make a specific protein.
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What is polydactyly? And how is it caused?
Having extra fingers or toes – is caused by a dominant allele of a gene and can therefore be passed on by only one parent who has the disorder.
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Card 2


What does heterozygous mean?


Two different alleles for a single trait. (Brown & Black to produce brwon hair).

Card 3


What does homozygous mean?


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Card 4


What does phenotype mean?


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Card 5


What is a genotype?


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