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By what process is energy released?


What is the definition of respiration?

-The process of releasing energy from glucose, which happens constantly in every cell.

What is the energy from respiration used for?

-Build up larger molecules (proteins)

-Contract muscles

-Maintain a steady body temperature

How many types of respiration are there? What are they?

-2, Aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Which type of respiration releases more energy per glucose molecule?

-Aerobic respiration

When does aerobic respiration occur?

-When there is more oxygen.

Which type of respiration is used more often?


What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?

-Glucose + Oxygen à Carbon dioxide + Water

What is energy released by respiration used to make?


What does ATP do?

-Carries the energy released during respiration to the places where energy is needed.

Energy released from **** types of respiration is used to produce ATP.


ATP is described as the ‘e***** c*******’ of living things.

-Energy currency

What is ATP synthesised from?

-ADP, using the breakdown of glucose during respiration.

Where does ATP move when providing energy?

-Moves to the part of the cell that requires energy.

What does breaking down ADP do?

-Releases energy where it is needed.

Therefore, describe the 3 processes of how ATP carries energy?

-1-ATP is synthesised from ADP (breakdown of glucose from respiration).

-2-ATP moves to the part of the cell that requires energy

-3-ATP is then broken down to ADP, releasing energy where it is needed.

What do muscles need to contract?

-ATP energy

When exercising, why is more energy required?

-Muscles contract more frequently; increased respiration.

Which substance is required during increase respiration while exercising?


What two factors increase to get more oxygen for respiration?

-Breathing rate, heart rate

Why does breathing rate increase?

-Breathing rate increases to get more oxygen into the blood.

Why does heart rate increase? (2 marks)

-Get glucose and oxygenated blood around the body to our muscles quicker

-Remove CO2 quickly at the same time.

P**** rate is a measure of heart rate.

-Pulse rate

How is the pulse rate taken? What is the normal pulse rate?

-Number of pulses (heartbeats) in a minute.

-60 – 80 beats/min

What is the correlation between pulse rate and fitness?

-The fitter you are, the lower your resting heart rate.

What is the correlation between heart rate and blood pressure?

-The higher the heart rate, the higher the pressure (positive correlation).

When is the blood pressure at its highest? What is this known as?

-When the heart contracts.

-Systolic pressure

When is the blood pressure at its lowest? What is this known as?

-When the heart relaxes.

-Diastolic pressure

What is the normal range of blood pressure?

-120/80 and 100/60

What sort of respiration does not use oxygen at all?

-Anaerobic respiration

Why is anaerobic respiration NOT better than aerobic respiration?
-Releases less energy.

What is the advantage of anaerobic respiration?

-You can keep on using your muscles.

How is the breakdown of glucose in


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