Biology - Cations, Anions and Tests4Molecules

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5 CATIONS
Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Hydrogen, Ammonium
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CALCIUM functions 1
(1)increase rigidity of bone,teeth+cartilage and component of exoskeleton (2)clotting blood + muscle contraction (3) enzyme activator (4) stimulates contraction and regulates transmission of nerve impulses
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CALCIUM functions 2
(5) regulates permeability of membranes (6) important for cell wall development in plants
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SODIUM functions
(1) involved in regulation of osmotic pressure, control of water levels in body fluid and maintenance of pH (2) affects absorption of carbs in the intestine, and water in the kidney (3) nervous transmission + muscle contraction (4) in vacuole
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POTASSIUM functions 1
(1) control of water levels in body fluid+maintain pH (2) helps in active transport (3) involved in synthesis of protein+glycogen, breakdown of glucose (4) helps healthy leaves+flowers
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POTASSIUM functions 2
(5) contributes to nervous transmission + muscle contraction (6) in vacuoles, maintains turgidity
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HYDROGEN functions
(1) involved in photosynthesis + respiration (2) involved in transport of O2 + CO2 (3) regulation of blood pH
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AMMONIUM functions
(1) component of amino acids/proteins/vitamins/chlorophyll/some hormones (2) essential component of nucleic acids (3) maintenance of pH (4) nitrogen cycle
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5 ANIONS
Nitrate, Hydrogen Carbonate, Chloride, Hydroxide, Phosphate
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NITRATE functions
(1) component of amino acids/proteins/vitamins+chlorophyll/some hormones (2) essential component of nucleic acids (3) nitrogen cycle
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HYDROGEN CARBONATE functions
(1) regulation of blood pH (2) transport of CO2+O2
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CHLORIDE functions
(1) aids in production of urine, maintains water balance (2) transport of CO2 in+out of blood (3) regulates affinity of haemoglobin through allosteric effects on molecule (4) regulation of blood pH (5) produces hydrochloric acid in stomach
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HYDROXIDE function
(1) regulation of blood pH
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PHOSPHATE functions
(1) increases rigidity of bone,teeth,cartilage, and component of exoskeletons (2) in phospholipids, ATP, nucleic acids+enzymes (3) regulation of blood pH (4) aids root growth in plants
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Test for Starch
IODINE - add iodine, look for blue-black colour
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Test for Reducing Sugars
BENEDICTS - add benedict's solution and heat, colour change from blue->green->yellow->orange-red
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Test for Non-Reducing Sugars
(1) do test for reducing sugar (2) heat with hydrochloric acid (3) neutralise with sodium hydrogencarbonate (4) test for reducing sugars again
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Test for Lipids
LIPID EMULSION - mix with ethanol, filter, cloudy white emulsion indicated lipids
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Test for Proteins
BIURET TEST - add biuret solution, colour change from blue to lilac
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Card 2

Front

CALCIUM functions 1

Back

(1)increase rigidity of bone,teeth+cartilage and component of exoskeleton (2)clotting blood + muscle contraction (3) enzyme activator (4) stimulates contraction and regulates transmission of nerve impulses

Card 3

Front

CALCIUM functions 2

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

SODIUM functions

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

POTASSIUM functions 1

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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