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Monomers and
ATP Inorganic Ions
Carbohydrates Water
Lipids DNA and RNA
Proteins Enzymes…read more

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· Monomer ­ single molecule, e.g. monosaccharide (glucose), amino acids and
· Polymer ­ long, complex chain of repeating monomers chemically joined together
by covalent bonds, e.g. polysaccharides (carbohydrate polymers).
·Condensation reactions join monomers together to make polymers. A water
molecule is released for every chemical bond made.
·Hydrolysis reactions use water to break down polymers and release individual
monomers.…read more

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Carbohydrates - general
formula: Cx(H20)y
CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharide - general
formula: C(H20)n
{n= no. carbon atoms}
·Carbohydrates are made from monosaccharide and are substances used as energy
and structural materials.
·All carbohydrates contain: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
There are three main groups of carbohydrates:
·Monosaccharide ­ simple sugars, e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose
·Disaccharides ­ "double sugars" formed from two monosaccharides, e.g. maltose,
sucrose and lactose
·Polysaccharides ­ large molecules formed from many monosaccharides, e.g.
cellulose, starch and glycogen…read more

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MONOSACCHARIDE: ·Hexose sugar (has six carbon atoms)
·Major energy source for most cells
·Highly soluble
GLUCOSE (C6H12O6)... ·Transported around the body
Two common isomers of glucose are alpha glucose and beta glucose.
They have the same chemical formula, however the atoms are arranged differently. On C1
the OH and the H group have swapped over in the beta glucose molecule.…read more

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Join together by a glycosidic
bond ­ a glycosidic bond is a
DISACCHARIDE (MALTOSE) bond between two sugars that
involves oxygen.
Formation of disaccharides:
Maltose: Two Alpha-Glucose
C6H12O6 Maltose
+ C6H12O6
- H2O
Sucrose Glucose and Fructose
= C6H22O11
Lactose Glucose and Galactose…read more

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Hajra Momoniat


Juwairiyah your powerpoint is sick!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

I clicked on one star by accident so ill try to sort that out into 5 stars

Mekhla R



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