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ADVANCED BIOLOGY- EDEXCEL AS
Biological Molecules
The atom
The 3 different particles that make up an atom are protons, neutrons and electrons
The protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and the electrons circle around the nucleus in
orbitals
The number of protons equals the number of neutrons
The atomic…

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When acids and bases react together, they form salts
Chemical bonds
Ionic bonding is when a metal gives one of its electrons to a non metal. After this has
happened, the ions will become charged and will attract each other. The Electrostatic forces
draw these ions together, forming an ionic…

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Dissacharides or double sugars (formed from 2 monosaccharides)
Polysaccharides (polymer chain of many hundreds of monosaccharides)
Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides are the simplest forms of carbonhydrates. They are the building blocks for
larger carbohydrate molecules and provide cells with an energy source.
The name of monosaccharide depend upon the carbon atom in…

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Red
Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are made up of hundreds of monosaccharide units
A condensation reaction occurs in-between each monosaccharide unit
Long chains of monosaccharides are held together by glycosidic bonds (it can be
branched)
STORAGE polysaccharides are folded to give a compact molecule e.g. starch
STRUCTURAL polysaccharides are coiled or straight…

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Fatty acids are organic with one carboxyl (-COOH) group at one end and they have a long
hydrocarbon tail
The way that fatty acids reacts with glycerol depends on:
The length of the hydrocarbon tail
How saturated the molecules
Saturated fatty acids only have C-C bonds only and unsaturated fatty…

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An amino acid have an amino group (-NH2) at one end of the molecule and a carboxyl group
(-COOH) at the other end of the group. The R group is the only thing that differed in an amino
acid.
A positively charged amino acid ion is formed by the amino…

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Globular proteins are compact molecules which are twisted polypeptide chains rolled up into
a ball
The shape of a globular protein is a result of the hydrophobic R groups pointing at the centre
of the molecule. Also, because of this, globular proteins are soluble
Globular proteins are less soluble and…

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Alkalinophiles can survive a PH of 10+ and are found in soda lakes rich in sodium
carbonate and sodium chloride
Acidophiles- are bacterium and able to tolerate pH below 1
Beginnings
The cell theory:




Organisms that are made up of one cell are unicellular
Mulitcellular organisms are made up of…

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Cellulose cell wall
Plant cell walls are made up of microifibrils glued together by a mixture of polysaccharides
Provides cell support, allows it to be turgid- when water enters cell by osmosis, cell wall
expands
Provides mechanical strength to support cell. Strength can be added with ligin and
collenchyma- extra…

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To form an extensive transport system throughout the cell
Production and packaging of protein (rough ER)
Syntheisis of lipids and steroids (smooth ER)
Collection, storage and distribution of these materials
Ribosomes
Are small, dense organelles found in huge numbers in all cells, are 20nm in diameter in
eukayotic cells but…

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