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Lifestyle, health and risk- introducing biological molecules
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen make up carbohydrates and proteins are made up of amino
acids which are made up carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
In most living things, water takes up about 65-95% of its mass
Water is…

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Glucose, fructose and galactose are examples of hexose sugars commonly occurring in cells
and organisms.
Disaccharides are carbohydrates made of 2 monosaccharides combined together e.g.
When 2 monosaccharides combine, water forms and condensation reaction occurs and a
glycosidic linkage occurs. To break these 2 monosaccharides a Hydrolosis reaction…

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A glycerol and fatty acid makes a monoglyceride that has an ester linkage which with a
condensation reaction gives a diglyceride and another condensation reaction makes a
Oils have double bonds with kinks to stop them from packing together (unsaturated) unlike
animal fats which have single bonds that are…

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White cells Lymphocytes have major roles in the immune system, including forming antibodies
phagocytes ingest bacteria or cell fragments
Platlets Involved in the blood clotting mechanism
The plumbing of the circulatory system- arteries, veins and capillaries
3 types of vessel in the circulatory system are arteries, veins and capillaries

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The cardiac cycle
Atrial systole
1. Atrium muscles contract, pushing blood past the bicuspid valve into the ventricle
2. Atrium muscles relax
Ventricular systole atrial diastole
3. Ventricle muscles contract, causing blood pressure to close the bicuspid valve and open the
semi-lunar valves, forcing the blood out of the aorta…

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Systolic Diastoli Condition Response
120 80 optimum
120-130 80-85 normal Biennial checks
130-139 85-89 High-normal Annual checks
140-159 90-99 Stage 1 hypertension Check in 2 months
160-179 100-109 Moderate (stage 2) hypertension Treatment essential
180-209 110-119 Severe (stage 3) hypertension Treatment essential
209-210 120 Very severe (stage 4) Treatment…

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Hypertension- means persistent high blood pressure and is known as the silent killer. It
causes the heart to increase its workload and increases the risk of athecolorisis and damages
blood vessels
Smoking- the habit of cigarette smoking generates the greatest risk o fatal health. Carbon
Monoxide combines with haemoglobin in…

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-Blockers- substances taken daily to reduce blood pressure by reducing heart rate. The
heart rate is caused to beat less frequently
Calcium channel blockers- substances that work by widening blood vessels so allowing more
blood to flow at reduced pressure.
Drugs to reduce blood cholestrol levels
When blood cholestrol are…

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How physically active we are in work and leisure- additional energy is needed for
physical activity
Our age and the amount of growth and repair work the body has to support- the rapid
growth that occurs in adolescence makes an additional demand of 8kJ per hour
Our sex- females require…

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A cohort is a group of people who share a common charactestics or experience within a
defined time period e.g. in Inuit people, they have a rich diet of oily fish
Randomised controlled trials (RCT) are a method that's common in evaluating the
effectiveness of medicines by giving treatments at…


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