bio psychology

What do the thalamus and cortex do?
Thalamus - passes on information from the senses Cortex - stores information and helps problem solving
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What is in the limbic system?
Is about emotions and memories. Includes: Hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
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What does the hypothalamus and hippocampus do?
Hypothalamus - regulates eating, drinking and motivated behaviour Hippocampus - passes on short term memories to long term
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What do the left and right amygdala do?
Left: Positive and negative emotions Right: negatives, fear and sadness
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What does the neurotransmitter GABA do?
Is an inhibitor so blocks messages. Calms the nerves and relaxes. Low levels of this cause anxiety.
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What are the types of neurons and what do they do?
Motor: Generates movement Sensory: Messages about senses Inter-neurons: messages from neuron to neuron
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What is the structure of a neuron?
Cell body. Axon. Mylein Sheath. Nodes of ranvier. Axon terminal. Synaptic gap. Dendrites. Receptors. Electrical impulse.
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What happens in the synaptic gap?
It sits between two neurons. Dendrites has receptors that are a certain shape. Neurotransmitter fits = message continues Does not fit = message blocked
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What is reuptake?
When unwanted neurotransmitters are reused. It regulates the amount of neurotransmitters in the synapse and how many messages they are.
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What do transport proteins do?
Pick up the neurotransmitters and absorbs them into the presynaptic neuron
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What are the strengths of neurotransmitters?
Pet scans: Jovanovic looked at low levels of serotonin in women. Synaptic receptors were different in those who had PMDD. Suggests synapse does affect mood. Scans: Uses humans, scientific credibility
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Why are neurotransmitters unreliable?
Allen and Stevens 1954 found hippocampus neurons were unreliable. Less than half were picked up by postsynaptic neuron.
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What is the reward pathway?
Works to receive rewards, mesomblic pathway, drugs act in a specific way in the synapse
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How does nicotine work?
Affects dopamine receptors, mimics natural neurotransmitter, binds to certain receptor to excite the neuron, decreases dopamine receptors and changes shape of the cell.
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What is desensitisation?
When more of a substance is needed to achieve the same response or feeling. Leads to addiction.
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How does cocaine work?
Blocks the binding site of the reuptake receptor. Stops reuptake of dopamine. Leads to over stimulation. Damages dopamine receptors.
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How are cannaboid receptors effected by cannabis?
Located in hippocampus, affects memory function. Blocks cannaboid receptors leading to less activity in hippocampus neurons. More dopamine is released.
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What evidence is there for the reward pathway?
Olds and Milner 1954 - found pleasure centre in the brain.
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What is in the prefrontal cortex?
Cortex regulates emotions. Lack of regulation = aggression.
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How is the prefrontal cortex involved in aggression?
Damaged: focus on present not the long term, want rewards straight away. Means they cannot control aggression.
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How is Phineas Gage evidence for the frontal cortex being involved in aggression?
Metal rod damaged his frontal cortex. After accident he became different, personality changed to become more aggressive. Suggests cortex affects decision making and regulation.
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Card 2

Front

What is in the limbic system?

Back

Is about emotions and memories. Includes: Hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala

Card 3

Front

What does the hypothalamus and hippocampus do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do the left and right amygdala do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the neurotransmitter GABA do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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