Behavioural approach to explaining phobias

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What does the two-process model consist of?
1). Classical Conditioning 2).Operant Conditoning
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association by pairing a response naturally caused by one stimulus with another, previously natural stimulus
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How does classical conditioning explain phobias?
When a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a frightening unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned one and the fear of it is the conditioned response, hence causing a phobia
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How does operant conditioning explain phobias?
The phobia is maintained by avoiding the phobic stimulus through negative reinforcement. The unpleasant consequence is prevented by avoiding any situations which involve the phobic stimulus
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Who developed the two-process model?
Mowrer (1960)
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Outline one strength of this model
Allows effective treatments for phobias as it suggests that phobias can be unlearned through conditioning (same way as they were learned)
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Outline one criticism of this model
Fails to consider cognitive factors (e.g. thought processes)
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Outline Watson and Rayner's (1920) research
Attempted to condition phobia of rats into 11 month old baby, Little Albert. Whenever Little Albert reached for the rat, a loud noise would be made. After a while, Albert would begin to cry when shown the rat.
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Evaluate Watson and Rayner's (1920) research
Ethical Issues. Lacks ecological validity. Lacks population validity
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Card 2

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What is classical conditioning?

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Learning through association by pairing a response naturally caused by one stimulus with another, previously natural stimulus

Card 3

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How does classical conditioning explain phobias?

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Card 4

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How does operant conditioning explain phobias?

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Card 5

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Who developed the two-process model?

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