behaviour and communication

what is Atypical behaviour?
abnormal behaviours in that species
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give 4 thing that can cause atypical behaviour
seperation from natural habitat, loss of normal social groups, drugs and medical fertility control adn caging
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What are the 5 caterogries of Atypical behaviour?
Hyper activity, Hyper aggression, Excessive inactivity, Displacment behaviour, sterotypic and Learned helplessness.
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A definition of Hyper activity.
A state of excess activity that may be portrayed though fidgeting, jumpiness, nervousness, or excessive movement.
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A definition of hyper aggression
extreme or excessive aggression
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A definition of Excessive inactivity
Extremely or excessively inactive
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A definition of Displacement behaviour
when an animal reacts innapropiatly for the stimulus or stimuli that provoked it. usually occurs when an animal is torn between two conflicting drives, such as fear and aggression.
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A definition of sterotypic behaviour
repeated behaviour functions that have no obvious function
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5 examples of Atypical behaviour
Bar biting, Swaying, Weaving, Pacing and neck twisting
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what is the difference between domestic and captive animals
Domestic is the term used to describe animals that thrive in human care and often depend on it. where as captive the term used to describe all animals in human care.
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define evolution
the process where organisms have changed over time from anicent organisms to modern day organisms
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why has behaviour evolved?
due to adaptation, which is when an organism becomes more well suited to living in a particular habitat.
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Adaptations occur through.......
natural selection
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what is natual selection and what is an example?
when an animals gene makes them more likey to survive/reproduce their genes will be passed and seen in their offspring. E.g during the industrial revolution, the black peppered moth survived more than the lighter forms as the moth was harder to see.
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what is survival of the fittest?
When individuals are better suited for the enviroment, they survive and breed. over time changing the characteristcs of population and increasing survival.
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what was darwins hypothesis?
seperate species may have arisen from original ancestors and changed to suit their current habitat.
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what is the difference between nature and nurture?
nature is heredity (behaviours which are inherited/ innate) and Nurture is environmental- behaviours which are influenced by the surroundings.
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what is brood parasitisim?
A behavioural adaptation of parental behaviour. E.g cuckoos lay their eggs in the nest of another bird species, the young are then reared by the host (reed warbler)
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what is infanticide?
A behavioural adaptation. Male kills young who is not his off spring. E.g male lions will kill young from another male so female lion will mate with him and his gene will get passed down.
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what are symbotic relationships?
A behavioural adaptation. mutually benifical relationships. E.g Oxpeckers feed on the parasites from mammals including wildebeest and impala
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what 2 ways animals have adapted to be able to live in their enviroment?
Behavioural adaptations (marking their teritory) and Morphological (physcial E.g giraffs long necks)
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how have animals adapted thier circadian rhythm to help survival?
The kiwi is a nocturnal bird. This behaviour helps to reduce its risk of predation and competition for food during daylight
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how have animals adapted their timing of reproduction to help survival?
Kakapo chicks feed on seeds of the rimu tree. the mating cycle is linked with the fruiting of the rimu tree. this give offspring a good chance of survial
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what is an example of Territoriality?
Male black rhinoceros mark their territories by spraying urine and scattering faeces by rotating the tail
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what are two ways animals catch their prey?
Ambush/sit and wait-camofalge and wait (Anglerfish, stalking prey). Cooperative hunting – occurs when more than one animal hunts together ( dolphins herding fish)
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What is a defense stragegie that animals use?
Mimacry - e.g. the Scarlet King snake is a mimic of the venomous king snake
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what is meant by courtship?
Courtship in animals is the behaviour by which different species select their partners for reproduction.
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what is the benifits of courtship?
It allows the male and female to ensure they are Mating with the correct species! Not going to inbreed! Mating with the most genetically fit partner.
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Name 3 behaviours which may have adapted/evolved
Infanticied, Symiotic behaviours and mimicary
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define instinctive behaviour
Genetically determined performed without prior experience Found in all equivalent members of a species (all males, females, refers to one group)
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what is an example of instinctive behaviour
Egg eviction behaviour in cuckoo chicks. spiders web spinning, nest building, Courtship - peacock displaying
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what is insight learning?
A learning behaviuor, solving a problem by applying what is already known from previous experiences, as a spontaneous occurrence. . Does not envolve trial and error (a Eureka! moment)
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what is Habituation?
Learing behaviour - Gradual decrease in responsiveness to a stimuli as a result of repeated exposure Prevents wasting energy and attention on irrelevant stimuli
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what is Social Learning?
Animals learn by observing others
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What is conditioning?
Learning which is connected to some kind of stimulus .
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What is operant conditioning?
Learned behaviour. voluntary behaviour including Reward or punishment. learning refers to changes in behaviour as a result of experiences that occur after a response. Cat in box finds how to get reward.
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what is classical conditioning?
Learned behaviour. Modification of involuntary or reflex behaviours. In classical conditioning, learning refers to involuntary responses that result from experiences that occur before a response. Pavlov and dog.
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what is trial and error?
Learned behavior. New and appropriate responses to stimuli are acquired through experience. The toad and the bee
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What is imprinting?
phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage)
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what is an example of Innate and learned behaviour working together?
song birds must hear their species singing otherwise their singing patterns will come out garbled and unrecognizable for the birds of the same species
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what is meant by the term internal factors?
Inside the body, Examples: Physical Physiological Psychological
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what is meant by the term external factors?
Outside the body,Examples: Environment (natural, captive or domestic) Conspecifics Predators Humans
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Internal factors - How can physical structures in the body affect behaviour?
Muscle mass – bigger males may be more dominant or aggressive.
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Internal factors: Psychological, How can mental processes in the body affect behaviour?
Stress and anxiety – caused by living conditions, other animals e.g. group living species hierarchy, mistreatment in captivity
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Internal factors: Physiological, How can body processes affect behaviour?
Body clock being affected by day length, circadian rythyms
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what are hormones? ( look at session 10 for more info)
Chemical signals that are secreted by glands into the circulation system and communicate regulatory messages within the body They reach all parts of the body but only target cells respond
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what is the defintions of Intraspecific and Interspecific?
Intraspecfic is within the same species and Interspecific is different species i.e predator and prey
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External factors, how may predators change an animals behaviour?
cause animals to hide, evolve methods to avoid them e.g. pack living
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External factors, How do humans influence the behaviour of the animal?
habitat loss, Overfishing affecting salmon migration routes , Roads/man-made structures affecting animal movements, Domestication – more docile.
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How do seasons influence animal behaviour?
Cause hibernation and influences Circannual rhythms-yearly rhythms e.g. Migration
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what is photoperiod and how does it influence animal behaviour?
it is the day light length, and Circadian rhythm- daily routine, sleep/wake cycles
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what are 4 advantages of being nocturnal?
easier to hide, predators will more likely be asleep, it is cooler and more prey for some.
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what are the 3 circadian rhythms?
dirnal - active during the day. Nocturnal - active during the night and Crepuscular - active through dawn and dusk
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what is the difference between intraspecific and inerspecific communication?
Intra is communication between same species i.e parent to offspring and inter is communication from different specices i.e predator to prey
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5 reasons animals communicate
To show where food is, Attract a mate, Warn others of danger, defence e.g warning and social behaviour e.g hunting
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effective ecommuntication needs.....
signallers and receievers
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what is an example of inter and intraspecifc communication?
inter - a poison arrow frog warns of predators with their colours and intra - bee waggle dance
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What are the different ways animals communicate?
Vision (body language, facial expressions) Hearing (vocalisations and other sounds) Chemical (smell, pheromones, taste) Touch (e.g. allogrooming)
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What are the 3 types of eyes in animals?
Simple - detect light intensity (jellyfish) Compound - mesh like apperance, multiple lenses (beetle) Mammalian eye - 1 lens, much clearer sharper image (cat)
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look at session 11 table to revise some more
look at session 11 table to revise some more
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define the term hierarchy
a system in which members of the group are ranked by status.
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what are the three main types of hierarchy?
Linear, Triangular and complex
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Describe linear hierarchy
animal A pecks animal B without being pecked in return and so on down the group. Usually seen in small groups - less than 10
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descibe triangluar hierachy
animal A beats animal B, animal B beats animal C, animal C beats animal D, but animal D beats animals B. often seen in groups of animals that are very homogeneous (i.e. the animals are approximately the same age, size, weight, etc.
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describe complex hierachy
several triangular relationships may exists, often seen in groups of animals that contain many members. is the most difficult to record
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What is agonistic behaviour?
Agonistic behaviours are any survivalist social behaviour an animal performs that is either aggressive, defensive or avoidance
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Why does conflict need to be reduced?- Why would an animal want to avoid conflict?
Because they could become injured, even minor injuries can become serious They could possibly die
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How can communication reduce conflict?
Vocalisation Visual signals Tactile signals Scent marking Weapons – quills, spines etc
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Wolves use communication to reinforce social hierarchy so the alpha can show his dominance – why do they do this?
to prevent fighting within the group they use body language, vocalisation and scent
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How do dolphins avoid conflict?
at times of high excitement and aggression they use short vocal bursts to communicate messages that avoid conflict
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How do chimps use communication to reduce conflict?
Grooming - A tactile communication that reinforces bonds and relieves tension . Chimps that groom each other are more likely to co-operate with each other (groom or share food) in the future
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What is affilliative behaviour
Promoting group cohesion
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What is Altruism
Selflessness - acting in a way that benifits others, often a disadvantage to themselves
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What is an example of affilliative behaviour?
Develop bonds by living together and having to fend for survival day after day Grooming, playing, mutual feeding, all have a relevant role in bonding. Intense experiences do too
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What is an example of Altruism?
Honey bees- altruistic behaviour in a social colony Use the sting against enemies when they perceive the hive to be threatened
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what is polygamy?
A pattern of mating in which an animal has more than one mate. with in it is polygyny and polyandry
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what is polygyny, what animals is it seen in and why is it used?
The association of one male with multiple females Found in a few birds and insects- most common in mammals A strategy used by males to increase their reproductive fitness
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what is polyandry, what animals is it seen in and why is it used?
A group with one female and many males A reproductive strategy that helps a female ensure reproductive success by providing her with multiple mating options. Example is spotted sandpipers
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what is monogamy, what animals is it seen in and why is it used?
The practice of having only one mate Most common in birds (owls) and rare in other animals Monogamy reduces the potential for genetic variation among a female's offspring
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what is the difference between serial monogamy and social monogamy?
Serial- Where animals pair with a mate for one mating season but change mates over the course of a lifetime. Social - The behavioural pairing of a single female with a single male
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what is a harem?
a group of female animals sharing a single mate. Females may initially associate in a harem for group defence, or they may be herded together by a male
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what is bi-parental behaviour?
Care given to the offspring by both the mother and the father Example- Robins
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what is intensive parenting?
Caring for altricial young Example- Red fox
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No parental investment
No parental care after birth Example- snakes
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Parent-offspring bonding parenting?
Parents and offspring develop a strong bond as it is often required for the offspring to learn to survival Example- Orangutan
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Filial Imprinting parenting?
The imprinting of offspring on their parents There is a critical period for learning that is irreversible once something has been imprinted upon Example- geese
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Sexual imprinting?
Whereby mate preferences are affected by learning at a very young age, usually using a parent as the model Example- male zebra finches appear to prefer mates with the appearance of the female bird that rears them, rather than that of the birth parent
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5 reasons why we study animal behaviour
inform us how humans act, help understand behaviour, for animal welfare, study of evolution, managing animal population
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what causes behaviour?
External environment – e.g. rain, heat, cold, other animals, etc. Internal environment – e.g. hormones, disease, parasites. and genes
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what are 2 types of sampling?
Focal - Observing one individual for a specified amount of time and recording all their behaviour. Scan - A group of individuals is scanned at regular intervals and the behaviour of each one is recorded.
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What are the Pros and Cons of Focal and Scan sampling?
Focal Pro- Specific detailed info. Con- dont see the whole picture. Scan - Lots of info gathered from bigger picture. Con - more likely to miss something
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Look at session 15 on types of recording
Look at session 15 on types of recording
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What is an ethogram?
An ethogram is a catalogue of the individual behaviours shown by a species- NOT an explanation of WHY
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when an animals grooms another animal
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when an aniaml grooms itself
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the method the animal uses to move
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act of realising feaces
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What is a Tympanum?
Many insects have a ‘tympanum’ – a membrane that vibrates in response to incoming sound This membrane may have various locations, e.g. crickets have it in their front legs Some animals may have larger ears e.g. Long eared bats
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What is meant by the term Macrosmatic
A strong sense of smell
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Define the term Pheromones
Pheromones are substances secreted by the body, which have an effect on the behaviour of other animals of the same species
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What are the uses of pheromones?And give an example of what animal uses them and how?
Uses- alarm, food trails, sex pheromones. Bees use them to entice swarm into empty hive
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Name three other types of senses animals have that humans dont
Pit vipers are able to ‘see’ infrared light or heat, Turtles can sense magnetic fields, Electroreception - sharks, rays. e.g. Sharks use Ampullae of Lorenzini on their snouts to detect electrochemical impulses e.g. those produced by prey movement.
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What is the lateral line?
Present in most fish and amphibians Sense organ to detect movement and vibration in water Neuromasts – clusters of sensory and support cells Helps avoid collisions and with orientation Also helps locate prey
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Card 2


give 4 thing that can cause atypical behaviour


seperation from natural habitat, loss of normal social groups, drugs and medical fertility control adn caging

Card 3


What are the 5 caterogries of Atypical behaviour?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


A definition of Hyper activity.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


A definition of hyper aggression


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