• Created by: Charlie
  • Created on: 05-05-15 14:28
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  • Crowd Essay plan
    • 1. Types of collectives
      • Causal crowd - no real bond and goal temp Goodie 1992
      • Expressive Crowd - gather to express emotion - example like a concert
      • A mob - emotional crowd who commits or have commit violence - example lynch mobs in 1960s
      • Riots - Mobs engage in roit behaviour - usually negative and violent
    • 2. Early Crowd Theory
      • Started in 19th cent - concerns of movement to less to more dense populations / lack of social control
      • Le Bon (1895) - crowd collective mind - divide between individual and crowd / submergence - loss of self, control, responsablity.                  traded for sense of power though numbers. Not group of individuals - primitive uncurious - operates on low intellutial capciry and heightened emotional states. spreads thoughtout crowd contagion
        • Ve -) Decontextualized account of human behaviour - does not take into account indivials or contexts eg studnt protests
          • problem as it allow us to make assumptions /le bon theory allow crowd to be viewed a irrational burtal - takes away voice in society as dismissed as madness.
          • Takes away responsibility on both sides as dismissed as part of crowd madness
      • convergence theory
        • States that people who want to act in a certain way intentionally come together.
          • Spethen (2000) found that those who took part in american roits againist the war where less likely to have convictions than there either other peers.
            • Critics of this theory report that it still excludes the social determination of self and action, in that it argues that all actions of the crowd are born from the individuals' intents
    • 2. De- individualization
      • Normal constraints are weaker due to people losing individuality in situation - reduced self-wariness / no evaluating behaviour in private reflexive way / more likely to break restraints on aggressive behaviour. / Factors include - Anonymity / altered states of consciences and diffusion of responsibility
        • ANONYMITY - leads to sense of reduced individuality. In turn lead to aggression as detached from normal inhibitions e.g. soldier uniform
        • RESPONSIBILTY - Being part of faceless crowd - feel less personal responsibility, less likely to be blamed, spread across group.
        • Reduced self awareness - Think of one self differently have altered state of consciousness
        • Zimbardo 1969 - prison study - found guard how where deindivdualized acted more brutal
          • Diner - Halloween - children in large group more likey to be anti-social
          • Silke - anaylzed 500 violent attacks 206 by masked and more violent attacks
        • Can depend on context - KKK vs nurses Miles 1986
    • 3.Social identity theory
      • states being in a group will lead to prejudice against another group. Happens in three stages.
        • Social Categorising - placing into groups involves stereotyping, in-group, out group activities etc,
        • Social identification -taking on beiliefs, values, uniform etc. of group eg. football fans
        • Social Comparison - finding differences making your group look better
        • Tajfel (1970) - Participants favoured in-group members over out-group members, allocating them points
        • Ve -) underestmates induvdual differences / some have great tendancies depending on personality
        • Can explain wide range of phemomenia - support for football and racism etc.
        • Sherif 1935 -over numerous trials the group converged to a common estimate, showing the person whos estimated was greatly different conformed to the groups view
    • 5. Implications
      • Clear implications for policing - football matches - hogget and Scott 2010
    • 4. case studies
      • Student protests 2010 - police critized over tactics
      • London riots 2011 - riots in London, Manchester, Birmingham and Liverpool after man shot dead.
        • LE BON - media conveyed them as feral underclass
        • Convengence theory
          • ALL tended to be of lower middle class
        • DEINDIV- most wore mask etc. media accounts
        • Social isentity most felt being part of a group in which society over looked


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