B6 - Biology GCSE revision

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 08-06-13 15:23
what does a flagellum do?
helps bacteria to move
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what does the cell wall do?
maintains the shape of bacteria and stops them bursting
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what does DNA do?
controls activities and reproductions in bacteria cells
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what are the 4 different shapes of bacteria?
spherical, rod, spiral and curved rods
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how do bacteria reproduce?
by a type of asexual reproduction called binary fission
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what does aseptic tachniques mean?
keeping unwanted microbes out when growing bacteria
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how can the growth rate of yeast be increased?
by controlling: food availability, temperature, pH and removing of waste products
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what do viruses consist of?
a protein coat surrounding a strand of genetic material
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what is the only way viruses can reproduce?
they can only reproduce in other living cells
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what are the only specific cells that viruses can attack?
plants, animals and bacteria
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what are some ways that disease can be spread?
in food, water, contact or by airborn droplets
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what are the 4 stages of infection by a disease?
entry into the body, rapid growth(incubation), production of toxins and then the appearance of symptoms
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name 4 ways that in a natural disaster, disease can spread faster?
water and sewage supplies damaged, electricity supplies damaged, displacment of people and disruption of health services
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what did Louis Pasteur do?
he formulated the germ theory of disease
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what did Joseph Lister do?
he developed antiseptics which control disease
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whats did Alexander Fleming do?
he discovered antibiotics which kill bacteria and fungi, but not viruses
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what is a resent problem with antibiotics?
some bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics through natural selection
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what are the 5 stages of making yoghurt?
sterilisation of equipment, pasteurisation, incubation, sampling and then adding colours/flavours
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what does lactobacillus bacteria do?
converts lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid
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what is anaerobic respiration in yeast called?
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what happens in fermentation?
fermentation is where sugars are converted into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide
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what are the 6 stages of making beer?
extracting sugar from the source, adding yeast and keeping it warm, preventing entry of air/microbes, clarifying/clearing, drawing of the beer, pasteurising and bottling
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is there a limit to the concentration of alcohol that can be produced by fermentation?
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why are there different strains of yeast?
because different strains of yeast can tolerate different concentrations of alcohol
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what is distillation used for?
to increase the alcohol concentration in drinks
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how can biomass provide energy?
by burning fast growing trees, and via fermentation
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what are biofuels?
they are alternatives to fossil fuels, which do not produce particulates or add to greenhouse gas levels
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what does biogas contain?
mainly methane, some carbon dioxide, traces of hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide
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when is biogas burnable and when is it explosive?
biogas containing more than 50% methane is burnable, but below 10% methane it is explosive
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what are some advantages and disadvantages of biogas?
advantages: it's a cleaner fuel than petrol and diesel, and it can be used to provide electricity, hot water and steam for heating or to fuel cars. Disadvantages: it contains less energy than natural gas
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what is gasahol?
it is a mixture of petrol and alcohol used in cars in countries like Brazil
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what is Loam?
a soil with a mixture of sand and clay
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what is humus, and what happens when it decomposes?
it is mostly decomposed deat material in soil, and when it decomposes it releases minerals into the soil, and aerates the soil
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what does life in soil need?
a supply of air and water
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what do earthworms do for soil?
they bury organic material which is decomposed by bacteria and fungi, they aerate and drain soil with their burrows, they mix up layers of soil and they neutralise acidic soil
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what did Charles Darwin do?
he recognised the importance of earthworms in agriculture
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what are the 4 major advantages of living in water?
nor shortage of water or risk of dehydration, less temperature variation, support of the body and easy to dispose of waste
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what are the 2 major disadvantages of living in water?
regulating water content and resistance to movement
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what varies with seasons and the depth of water?
light, temperature and mineral content
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what is different about food chains in oceans and food chains on land?
food chains in oceans start with bacteria, not plants, and some rely on 'marine snow'
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what are phytoplankton and zooplankton?
phytoplankton are microscopic plants, zooplankton are microscopic animals
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what can fertilisation and sewage run off cause?
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what are biological indicators?
they are species which are only able to survive in particular levels of oxygen or at particular pHs
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what do biological washing powders contain, and when do they work best?
they contain carbohydrases to digest carbohydrate stains, proteases to digest protein stains, and lipases to digest fatty stains and they work best at 40*C
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what can sucrose sugar be broken down into and by what?
broken down into the smaller, sweeter, sugars glucos and galactose, byt the enzyme sucrose
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what does it mean to use sweeter sugars than sucrose?
it means less sugar has to be added to foods
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what does immobilising enzymes mean?
it means fixing them into an insoluble material so they are easier to handle and use
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what are 2 advantages to immobilised enzymes?
they do not contaminate the substance they are added to, and they can be used in a continuous process
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what is different about people who are lactose intolerant to people who arent?
lactose intolerant people do not produce the enzyme lactase, so are unable to digest lactose sugar from milk
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what does bacteria in the gut of lactose intolerant people do?
it means the people ferment the lactose, causing wind and diarrhoea
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what are transgenic organisms?
new organisms that are produced by genetic engineering
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no matter what organism genes are put into, what do they never do?
genes do not produce the same proteins
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what do restriction enzymes do?
they cut DNA to leave 'sticky ends'
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what do ligase enzymes do?
they are used to stick other genes to the 'sticky ends' of cut DNA
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what other thing can bacteria be used for?
it can be genetically engineered to produce human insulin for diabetics
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what can transgenic organisms be used for?
they can be cloned to produce identical copies, and large quantities of useful product
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bacteria contain loops of DNA called what?
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what are assaying techniques?
they are techniques used to identify if the new gene has been successfully transferred
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what are 'DNA fingerprints'?
they are patterns, like bar codes, which are unique for each person
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what is electrophoresis?
it is a technique used to seperate pieces of DNA
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what are radioactive probes used for?
they are used to show up the DNA during DNA fingerprinting
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how is a DNA fingerprint created?
blood or cell sample isolated, DNA is extracted, restriction enzymes are used to fragment the DNA, DNA fragments are placed on gel, fragments are seperated by electric current(electrophoresis) and then banding of DNA fingerprint can be matched
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what can DNA fingerprinting be used for?
to identify a criminal, to identify the dead, to identify who your parents are
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Card 2


what does the cell wall do?


maintains the shape of bacteria and stops them bursting

Card 3


what does DNA do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what are the 4 different shapes of bacteria?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how do bacteria reproduce?


Preview of the front of card 5
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