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B2
B2:1

Cells

Part of Cell Function

Nucleus Controls cell and contains genetic material

Cell membrane Controls what enters/leaves the cell

Cytoplasm Made up of mostly water/where cell reactions occur

Mitochondria Where respiration occurs and energy is released, enzymes

Ribosome Where proteins are synthesised


Difference Between plant Cells And Animal…

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Palisade Chloroplasts packed tightly together Gains maximum sunlight

Root Hair Root hairs Increases s.area for more
mineral/water absorption
Permanent vacuole Affects water movement from soil
across cell
Position in plant-are close to xylem Plants able to take in more water
tissue-tip of growing roots

Fat Very little cytoplasm Leaves more…

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-The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient(difference between two areas
of concentration)

Net movement = particles moving in - particles moving out

-An increase in temperature means particles will move more quickly and therefore diffusion will
speed up due to the random movement of particles increasing

Diffusion in…

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What happens during photosynthesis?
-Light energy from the sun is absorbed by the chlorophyll in chloroplasts of plants. This is used to
convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen as a by-product
-Glucose is either used by the plant immediately in its cells or mostly it is converted…

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The xylem tissue carries water and mineral ions from the soil around the plant

The phloem tissue is used to transport sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest
of plant.
-Important that glucose reaches growing regions to supply the energy and materials required for
growth and that…

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Why do plants need minerals?
-Plants need minerals in order to thrive and make the chemicals needed in their cells
-Plants that don't have enough mineral salts will begin to look sickly and develop deficiency
symptoms because they are unable to grow properly

Why do plants need proteins?
-Nitrates are…

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Enzymes
-Biological catalysts able to speed up reactions such as respiration and photosynthesis without being
used up themselves
-PROTEINS
-Made up of amino acids folded into a specific shape so they can only react with the same specifically
shaped molecules
-Intracellular/Extracellular
-Either put molecules together or break them down

Lock…

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-Glucose is chemical energy released into potential kinetic energy, making it available for potential
activities in cells


Mitochondria-the site of respiration
-Occurs in mitochondria of cells e.g. muscles and sperm, as they require lots of energy so they have
lots of mitochondria however fat cells have less
-Mitochondria are organelles…

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Salivary Glands- contain enzyme amylase to convert starch into sugar

Stomach- contains gastric pits which secrete gastric fluid which contain:
Protease (pepsin) which converts proteins into amino acids
HCL- provides acid condition for enzymes to function at and kills microbes
Stomach protected from acid by mucus form stomach wall

Pancreas-…

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Cells Change composition of tissue fluid as they
remove food and oxygen and add CO2

Heart Supplies constant pressure needed to deliver
blood to tissues

Skin Main organ for heat control

Kidneys Regulate levels of water and salt(osmo
regulation)

Lungs Regulate exchange of cO2 and O2

Intestines Supply soluble foods…

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