GCSE Biology Revision

Basically the notes I learnt off last year for my Biology GCSE Unit 2

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Part of Cell Function
Nucleus Controls cell and contains genetic material
Cell membrane Controls what enters/leaves the cell
Cytoplasm Made up of mostly water/where cell reactions occur
Mitochondria Where respiration occurs and energy is released, enzymes
Ribosome Where proteins are synthesised
Difference Between plant Cells And Animal Function
Cell wall Strengthens cell, fully permeable, made of cellulose
Chloroplasts Allows the cell to photosynthesize as contains
chlorophyll, enzymes present
Permanent Vacuoles Filled with cell sap, stores some waste, gives cell
shape and keeps it rigid
Specialized Cells
-These cells are specialised in order to carry out a specific function
-Their structure is adapted to suit their function
Specialized cell Structure How related to function
Sperm A long tail with muscle-like proteins Allows cell to swim
A head containing large nucleus Genetic information of male
Vesicle/Acrosome containing enzymes Digestive enzymes can break into
layers of egg
Middle containing mitochondria Release energy for swimming
Egg Large Cytoplasm Contains food cell for growth
Nerve Long with many branches Quicker impulse
Connects to all parts of the body
White blood Changes shape and engulfs microbes To be able to take in and destroy
`foreign' objects
Red Blood No nucleus and contains haemoglobin More room to hold haemoglobin
Biconcave and flexible Larger s.area
Can squeeze into small spaces

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Palisade Chloroplasts packed tightly together Gains maximum sunlight
Root Hair Root hairs Increases s.…read more

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The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient(difference between two areas
of concentration)
Net movement = particles moving in - particles moving out
-An increase in temperature means particles will move more quickly and therefore diffusion will
speed up due to the random movement of particles increasing
Diffusion in Living Organisms
-Small molecules able to diffuse easier and faster, e.g.…read more

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What happens during photosynthesis?
-Light energy from the sun is absorbed by the chlorophyll in chloroplasts of plants. This is used to
convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen as a by-product
-Glucose is either used by the plant immediately in its cells or mostly it is converted into starch for
storage.…read more

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The xylem tissue carries water and mineral ions from the soil around the plant
The phloem tissue is used to transport sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest
of plant.
-Important that glucose reaches growing regions to supply the energy and materials required for
growth and that it reaches the storage organs so food can be stored for the winter
Plant Growth
-It occurs at the shoot and root tips, buds, flowers, fruits and in storage organs e.g.…read more

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Why do plants need minerals?
-Plants need minerals in order to thrive and make the chemicals needed in their cells
-Plants that don't have enough mineral salts will begin to look sickly and develop deficiency
symptoms because they are unable to grow properly
Why do plants need proteins?
-Nitrates are needed t make proteins and are necessary for healthy growth
-They come from the soil and are dissolved in water and are later returned to the soil when plants
decay to be used by other…read more

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-Biological catalysts able to speed up reactions such as respiration and photosynthesis without being
used up themselves
-Made up of amino acids folded into a specific shape so they can only react with the same specifically
shaped molecules
-Either put molecules together or break them down
Lock and Key Theory
-Enzyme + substrate (molecule enzyme works on) with specific shape
-Enzyme substrate complex-temporary molecule formed when enzyme and substrate come
together and enzyme binds to the active site on h molecule
-Enzyme…read more

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Glucose is chemical energy released into potential kinetic energy, making it available for potential
activities in cells
Mitochondria-the site of respiration
-Occurs in mitochondria of cells e.g.…read more

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Salivary Glands- contain enzyme amylase to convert starch into sugar
Stomach- contains gastric pits which secrete gastric fluid which contain:
Protease (pepsin) which converts proteins into amino acids
HCL- provides acid condition for enzymes to function at and kills microbes
Stomach protected from acid by mucus form stomach wall
Pancreas- creates pancreatic juice which can be secreted into small intestine
-Contains amylase, protease and lipase
Small intestine-enzymes break down substances
Liver- creates substance called bile secreted through bile duct into s.…read more

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Cells Change composition of tissue fluid as they
remove food and oxygen and add CO2
Heart Supplies constant pressure needed to deliver
blood to tissues
Skin Main organ for heat control
Kidneys Regulate levels of water and salt(osmo
Lungs Regulate exchange of cO2 and O2
Intestines Supply soluble foods and water
Liver Regulates level of toxins in blood
Pancreas Regulates blood glucose level
Control of Body temperature
-Maintained around 37 degrees Celsius-optimum for enzymes to function at
-Measured by hypothalamus, part of brain constantly…read more


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