HideShow resource information
  • Created by: zoe
  • Created on: 31-01-14 09:38
What is a stimulus?
a change in an organisms environment
1 of 74
What is an animal's response coordinated by?
the central nervous system (CNS)
2 of 74
What is the CNS also known as?
the processing centre
3 of 74
What is the CNS connected to the body by?
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
4 of 74
What does the CNS consist of?
the brain and spiral chord
5 of 74
What does the PNS consist of?
sensory neurons and motor neurons
6 of 74
What do sensory neurons do?
carry impulses from receptors to the CNS
7 of 74
What do motor neurons do?
carry impulses from the CNS to effectors
8 of 74
What is the job of muscle cells (the effectors)?
impulses travel along motor neurons and stop at them so they contact
9 of 74
What happens to light receptors in the retina of the eye?
the lens focuses light onto them and they are then stimulated and send impulses along sensory neurons to the brain
10 of 74
What happens to hormone secreting cells in a gland (effectors)?
an impulse travels along a motor neuron and stops at them. this triggers the release of the hormone into the bloodstream.
11 of 74
What are neurons?
specially-adapted cells that carry an electrical signal when stimulated
12 of 74
Why are neurons elongated?
to make make connections between different parts of your body.
13 of 74
Why do neurons have branched endings?
so that a single neuron can act on many other neurons or effectors.
14 of 74
What happens in motor neurons?
the cytoplasm forms a long fibre surrounded by a cell membrane called an axon.
15 of 74
What does the fatty sheath that surrounds some axons do?
insulates the neuron from neighbouring cells and increases the speed at which the nerve impulse is transmitted.
16 of 74
What are synapses?
the gaps between adjacent neurons.
17 of 74
What is step 1 of how are impulses transferred between neurons?
nerve impulse reaches the synapse through the sensory neuron.
18 of 74
What is step 2 of how are impulses transferred between neurons?
the impulse triggers the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters into the synapse.
19 of 74
What is step 3 of how are impulses transferred between neurons?
neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse and bind with receptor molecules on the membrane of a motor neuron
20 of 74
What is step 4 of how are impulses transferred between neurons?
A nerve impulse is sent through the motor neuron.
21 of 74
What do receptor molecules only bind with?
certain chemicals to start a nerve impulse in the motor neuron.
22 of 74
What is a reflex action?
a fast, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus.
23 of 74
What is the basic pathway for a reflex arc?
receptor's stimulated, impulses pass along sensory neuron into spinal chord, sensory neuron synapses with a relay neuron bypassing the brain, relay neuron synapses with motor neuron sending impulses to effectors, effectors respond.
24 of 74
What does the fixed pathway of neurons allow?
a very rapid response as there isn't any processing of information by the brain
25 of 74
What is the stepping reflex in newborn babies?
when held under its arms in an upright position, with feet on a firm surface, a baby makes walking movements with its legs.
26 of 74
What is the grasping reflex in newborn babies?
baby tightly grasps a finger that is placed in its hand.
27 of 74
What is the rooting reflex in newborn babies?
baby turns head and opens mouth ready to feed when its cheek is stroked.
28 of 74
What is the sucking reflex in newborn babies?
baby sucks on a finger (or mothers ******) that is put in its mouth.
29 of 74
What is the pupil reflex in adults?
when your eye stops bright lights from damaging your retina .
30 of 74
How does the pupil reflex work?
your iris controls the amount of light that enters your eye by contracting various muscle fibres
31 of 74
What is the stimulus that naturally triggers a response called?
primary stimulus.
32 of 74
What is a new stimulus called?
secondary stimulus.
33 of 74
What has to happen to form a conditioned reflex action?
an association between the primary and secondary stimulus has to formed.
34 of 74
Who discovered the conditioned reflex effect?
35 of 74
What does the final response have in a conditional reflex?
no direct connection to the stimulus
36 of 74
What can some conditional reflexes do?
increase a species chance of survival.
37 of 74
What can condition reflexes also be refereed as?
simple learning
38 of 74
What can your brain sometimes do by sending a signal, via neutron, to the motor neuron in the reflex arc?
override or modify a reflex action
39 of 74
What do mammals complex brain contain billions of?
40 of 74
Why do mammals have so many neurons?
to allow them to learn from experience, including learning how to respond to different situations and social behaviour.
41 of 74
In mammals brains what are formed in the brain during development?
neuron pahways
42 of 74
What increases as each neuron matures in the brain?
number of synapses
43 of 74
What happens each time you have a new experience?
a different neuron pathway is stimulated
44 of 74
What happens to the pathway each time a new experience is repeated?
it strengthens
45 of 74
What happens eventually to pathways that aren't used regularly?
they're deleted
46 of 74
What happens to pathways that are activated the most?
they're preserved
47 of 74
What does PET stand for?
positron emission tomography
48 of 74
What does a PET scan provide?
a 3D image which shows neuron activity in parts of the brain in response to learning words through speaking, seeing or hearing them
49 of 74
What happens to areas that are stimulated the most?
they develop more synapses between neutrons
50 of 74
What can you check to see if development in children is following normal patterns?
developmental milestones
51 of 74
What could it mean if milestones are late or missing?
there are neurological problems or the child is lacking stimulation
52 of 74
What are feral children?
children who have been isolated from society in some way so they don't go through the normal developmental process
53 of 74
In the absence of any other humans what do children learn to do instead of gaining the ability to talk?
make rudimentary grunting noises
54 of 74
What does the variety of potential pathways in the brain make it possible for animals to do?
adapt to knew situations, like being trained by a human.
55 of 74
In what area of the brain are intelligence, memory, language, and consciousness dealt with?
the cerebral cortex
56 of 74
What 3 different methods have scientists used to map the cerebral cortex?
physiological techniques, electronic techniques and MRI scanning
57 of 74
What is memory?
the ability to store and retrieve information
58 of 74
What happens in short term memory?
stores information for a limited period of time
59 of 74
What happens in long term memory?
stores an unlimited amount of information
60 of 74
What can be done to short term memories to become long term?
rehearse them
61 of 74
Why is the rehearse method argued?
It has been proved wrong but they don't really know how memory works so they are continuing to research
62 of 74
What two reasons might be why we forget things?
physical- like neurons decaying or lack of retrieval- like not using the information
63 of 74
What disease is likely to be caused by neurons decaying?
Alzheimer's disease
64 of 74
What can make us more likely to remember information?
repeating it, having a strong stimulus associated with it, you can see a pattern in it or impose a pattern on it
65 of 74
How do some drugs and toxins affect the nervous system?
by changing the speed at which nerve impulses travel to the brain
66 of 74
How else other than speed can drugs affect the nervous system?
send false signals to the brain, prevent nerve impulses from travelling across synapses, overload the nervous system with too many nerve impulses.
67 of 74
What is serotonin?
a chemical transmitter used in the CNS
68 of 74
What sort of effects can serotonin have?
mood enhancing effects
69 of 74
By blocking the transporter sites causing serotonin to build up in the synapse what effects does ecstasy cause?
serotonin concentrations in the brain to increase and the user to experience feelings of elation.
70 of 74
After using ecstasy what can be be caused in the long term?
memory loss
71 of 74
What is the process in which serotonin follows?
it passes across the brains synapses, landing on receptor molecules, serotonin not on a receptor is absorbed back into the transmitting neuron by the transporter molecules.
72 of 74
What are nervous and chemical response systems necessary to control?
the body's functions
73 of 74
What responses are nervous responses shorter than?
chemical responses
74 of 74

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is an animal's response coordinated by?


the central nervous system (CNS)

Card 3


What is the CNS also known as?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the CNS connected to the body by?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the CNS consist of?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all Brain and Mind resources »