# AQA additional Science P2 Part 3

1. Energy and Work
2. Gravitatonal Potential Energy
3. Kinectic Energy
4. Momentum
5. Explosions and collision
6. Car Safety
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## Energy and Work

When a force moves an object, energy is transferred and work is done.

If an object moves a force has to be applied to it. This force needs a supply of energy from somewhere, such as electricity or fuel.

When work is done moving the object, the supplied energy is transferred to the object so the work done is equal to the energy transferred.

Work and energy have the unit joule(J).

When work is done against frictional forces, the energy supplied is mainly transformed into heat.

Work done (J) = force(N) x distance moved in the direction of the force(m)

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## Gravitational Potential Energy

• Gravitational Potential Energy is energy stored in an object due to its position in a gravitational field.
• The change in Gravitational Potential Energy is worked out using:
• E = m x g x h
• E = change in Gravitational Potential Energy in joules (J)
• m = mass in kg
• g = gravitational field strength in N/m
• h = change in height in m

Power is the rate of transfer of energy. Power can be calculated using:

P = E/T

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## Kinetic energy

An elastic object is something that goes back to its original shape after it has been stretched or squashed.

When work is done on an elastic object , the energy transferred is stored as elastic potential energy. The energy is released once the object has gone back to its original shape.

Kinetic energy is the energy of movement.

The kinetic energy of a body depends on its speed and mass. The greater the mass and the faster the speed, the more kinetic energy it has.

Kinetic energy (J) = 1/2 x mass (k) x speed (m/s)²

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## Momentum

• All moving objects have momentum. The greater the mass and velocity of an object, the greater the momentum
• Momentum equation: momentum (kg m/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)
• p = m x v

• Whenever objects interact, the total momentum before the interaction is equal to the total momentum afterwards - provided no external forces act on them
• This is called: law of conservation of momentum

• The interaction could be a collision or an explosion. After a collision the objects may move off together, or they may move apart.
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## Explosions and Collision

Momentum has both size and direction.

In calculations one direction must be defined as positive, so momentum in the opposite direction is negative.

When two objects are at rest their momentum is zero. In an explosion the objects move apart with equal and opposite momentum. One momentum is positive and the other negative, so the total momentum after the explosion is zero.

When two objects push each other apart, they move apart with equal and opposite momentum.

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## Car Safety

Side impact bars & Crumple zones in cars are designed to fold in a collision. This increases the impact time and so reduces the force on the car and the people in it.

Seat belts & air bags spread forces on the body of the larger area. If a driver's head hits an airbag it changes momentum slowly, so the force on the head is less than it would be if it changed momentum quickly by hitting the steering wheel.

A seatbelt stops the wearer being flung forward if the car stops suddenly. The seatbelt streaches slightly increasing the impact time and reducing the force.

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